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Now russian govermential agencies can use Astra Linux for the top-secret information processing

Operating system «Astra Linux» worked out by JSC RPA RusBITech can be used in Russian governmental agencies that deal with the top-secret information.

The certification of the operating system «Astra Linux» concerning the compliance with the governmental requirements of the information security has been completed in Russia. The possibility of using the operating system «Astra Linux» in the information systems that deal with the top-secret information has been confirmed.

Thus the open-source based software platform with the high-level information security has appeared for governmental agencies in Russia. The process of complete replacement of previous operating systems and software by Linux and open-source software that is going on nowadays in governmental agencies in Russia must be completed till 2015.

The operating system «Astra Linux» has been created and is developing by the RPA RusBITech on the base of open-source software and functions on the computers with the processors x86-64 and ARM, and also on the mainframes IBM System Z. It comprises the software that ensures the highest level of information security.

RPA RusBITech is the member of the Linux Foundation.

 

Building LFS( Linux From Scratch)

After struggling for nearly one day, the LFS, linux from scratch, is finally built. I would note something about the building process. 1. about ssh There is some time that I just want to copy the command in LFS book and execute it directly. since copy between host OS and guest OS would be troublesome, SSH would be a convenient way to copy, paste and execute. execute "/etc/rc.d/init.d/sshd start" to start ssh service in LFS, one may also need to configure network interface using ifconfig command. 2. about mount After compiling all packages and changing root directory, I try to execute grub-install, and it tells me that there is no hard disk. And I eventually figured out that "mount -v --bind /dev ${LFS}/dev" is very critical in installing grub boot loader. Without it, grub-install would not find hd0.
 

openSUSE Weekly News 192 is out!

I'm happy to announce the new "openSUSE Weekly News, Issue 192".

 

 

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE Conference 2011
  • Plasma Active Status Report
  • Beta Pizza Party
     

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

 

openSUSE Weekly News 191 is out!

I'm pleased to Announce our new openSUSE Weekly News 191.

 

 

In this Issue:

  • Milestone 5 is out
  • Google Summer of Code
  • Factory update
     

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

 

openSUSE Weekly News 190 is out!

I'm pleased to announce the openSUSE Weekly News 190.

 

 

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE Conference 2011
  • Google Summer of Code Reports
  • Linus Torvalds: Linux 3.1-rc3
     

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

 

openSUSE Weekly News 189 is out!

I'm pleased to announce the openSUSE Weekly News 189.

 

 

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE Conference 2011
  • Google Summer of Code Reports
  • Sebastian Kügler: Plasma Active on OpenGL ES
     

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

 

openSUSE Weekly News 182 is out!

The Weekly News Team is pleased to announce the Weekly News Issue 182.

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE Continues Brazilian Blaze!
  • Google Summer of Code Reports
  • Frédéric Crozat: Status update on systemd for openSUSE Factory
  • SUSE Studio: Using AutoYaST for customizing your appliance on first boot
  • and many more ...

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

Flattr this: http://flattr.com/thing/135641/openSUSE-Weekly-News

 

openSUSE Weekly News 181 is out!

We are pleased to announce our new openSUSE Weekly News 181.

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE Milestone 2
  • Google Summer of Code Reports
  • Sebastian Kügler: Plasma Active updates
  • ZDNet/Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols: Firefox 5: New, but improved?
  • and many more ...

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

 

 

Mageia Linux

I installed the 64 bit version of Mageia, on a 500 gig HD. It was the only OS on the disk. I had tried the 32 bit CD, but had multiple problems, and after posting on the forums was advised to try the 64 bit DVD. The install was almost identical to Mandriva, and like Mandriva, I had to find, and install the correct, proprietary driver for my Nvidia 8400 GS card. I then proceeded to download, a few graphic intense games. The first game I tried to play would not even load. As I recall, this was one of the reasons I left Mandriva, and switched to PCLOS. I discovered several applications which would not load also. There are a few things that are annoying about this distribution, but nothing that would  prevent me from installing it again, once they have  some of the rough edges smoothed out. I have never been a fan of their software installer, plus the repositories were not loaded automatically. I had to set up the internet connection after the install, manually. Never did get my Netgear USB wireless device to connect. They have some of the best people from Mandriva working on it, and I'm sure they can fix the minor problems. I didn't find it good enough to replace Mint, Peppermint2, PCLOS. The specs on my machine are: MSI 760GM-E51 mobo, AMD 640 quad core processor, 600 watt power supply, 16 gig DDR3, 1.5 TB HD, Nvidia 8400GS, 512 meg video card, and a 500 gig HD, which I use for testing different distributions.

 

openSUSE Weekly News 180 is out!

We are pleased to announce the openSUSE Weekly News, Issue 180.

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE Conference and RW sessions – the BoF
  • Google Summer of Code Reports
  • TechRepublic/Jack Wallen: Five tips for collaborating in LibreOffice
  • Jos Poortvliet: openSUSE and online services
  • and many more ...

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad: http://os-news.ietherpad.com/2.

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker: http://developer.berlios.de/bugs/?group_id=12095

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker: http://developer.berlios.de/feature/?group_id=12095

Older content can be found there.

Flattr this

 

Create a custom distro: building a minimal image

Building a minimal image

With lessons learned from previous chapters here we go again with the first step for building a minimal image of our newly created Linux distribution, it ain't that difficult and it helps to understand the Slax customization process. In this article we'll build our own slax rebuild with the minimal footprint, path and configurations are taken from the same virtual machine and from previous path locations.

Path

As already set up under the “target” directory there's our environment, if you've followed previous articles you may want a copy of our previous tests:

 

root@slax:~/target# cp -R image image.full
root@slax:~/target# ls -la
total 20
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:02 ./
drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 4096 Jun 8 18:33 ../
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 image/
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:02 image.full/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:44 iso/

Deleting unneeded packages

 

Slax customization process is really easy, as you can see you've two directories:

 

root@slax:~/target/image# ls -la
total 16
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:02 ../
dr-xr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 boot/
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 slax/

inside the boot directory there're files related to OS boot as usual, you may boot it from a CD/HD/USB Stick, no matter about the file system, SLAX supports Linux/Unix file systems (EXT2/3/..., XFS, JFS, …) and Windows FAT16/32 as well, you only need to use the right tool to install the boot loader in the MBR (with syslinux or lilo) as previously explained here
Inside slax directory there're a lot of interesting things:

root@slax:~/target/image/slax# ls -la
total 136
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ./
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17993 May 30 17:35 GNU_GPL
-r--r--r-- 1 root root 459 May 30 17:35 LICENSE
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 base/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 35016 May 30 17:35 changelog.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4780 May 30 17:35 cheatcodes.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 437 May 30 17:35 livecd.sgn
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 658 May 30 17:35 make_iso.bat*
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 932 May 30 17:35 make_iso.sh*
dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:03 modules/
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 optional/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 959 May 30 17:35 requirements.txt
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 rootcopy/
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 21584 May 30 17:35 slaxsave.zip
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 tools/

LICENSE, GNU_GPL, *.txt files are license files and changelogs related to this system, leave them there to keep the GPL license. “livecd.sgn” is a signature file created from slax to identify itself, leave it where it is or your system won't boot (a script checks it during the boot process). “make_iso*” files are not necessary for our new system, we do customization on slax from a build machine so you may delete them without troubles. slaxsave.zip is not needed now, it's just a bunch of compressed xfs filesystem images used when you do customizations with loop devices, you can delete it.
Now let's analyze these directories:

base/

contains core modules for a slax boot, you may even leave it empty if you put your main modules into the “modules” directory

modules/

after the boot your system will load every module available inside this directory, you may even put core modules here, later on you'll see something more about modules

optional/

if you want to load a particular module only when you want it and you don't want to have it automatically loaded inside your system tree this is the place where you can put your own modules

rootcopy/

“/” root file system copy, you may add tweaks or customization scripts here, we'll see this dir deeply later on

tools/

bash script, utilities and various customization tools used inside slax (module loading/unloading, creation, activation, …)

now inside ~/target/image/slax/modules directory remove everything except 1-001-core.lzm module, this is the core module with a basic system inside it, I always add even the SSHD module because I'd like to connect to my remote machines with ssh. SSHD module is really thin, just 4kb so it could be a pity to remove it from your machine, here's the overall result:

root@slax:~/target/image/slax# ls -la modules/
total 49384
dr-xr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:03 ./
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 50499584 May 30 17:35 1-001-core.lzm
-rw------- 1 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 618-sshd-activate.lzm
root@slax:~/target/image/slax# ls -la base/
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ./
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ../
root@slax:~/target/image/slax# ls -la optional/
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ./
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ../
root@slax:~/target/image/slax# ls -la rootcopy/
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ./
dr-xr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 May 30 17:35 ../

as you can see there're just the file 1-001-core.lzm and the 618-sshd-activate.lzm module, about 50Mb for everything. You may even remove sshd if you don't want it. No matter about other directories, clean everything for a minimal image

Build it !

Now you can build your new minimal image with this command:

root@slax:~/target# /root/target/image/slax/make_iso.sh /root/target/iso/image.iso


or you can use the script called “make.iso” listed in my previous article (basically a wrapper of the above command), here's the result

root@slax:~/target# ./make.iso
2.01.01a53 (i686-pc-linux-gnu)
Scanning ../.
Scanning .././boot
Scanning .././boot/dos
Scanning .././boot/isolinux
Excluded by match: .././boot/isolinux/isolinux.boot
Scanning .././boot/pxelinux.cfg
Scanning .././boot/pxelinux.cfg/web
Scanning .././boot/pxelinux.cfg/web/conf
Scanning .././boot/syslinux
Scanning .././slax
Scanning .././slax/base
Scanning .././slax/modules
Scanning .././slax/optional
Scanning .././slax/rootcopy
Scanning .././slax/tools
Scanning .././slax/tools/WIN
Writing: Initial Padblock Start Block 0
Done with: Initial Padblock Block(s) 16
Writing: Primary Volume Descriptor Start Block 16
Done with: Primary Volume Descriptor Block(s) 1
Writing: Eltorito Volume Descriptor Start Block 17
Size of boot image is 4 sectors -> No emulation
Done with: Eltorito Volume Descriptor Block(s) 1
Writing: Joliet Volume Descriptor Start Block 18
Done with: Joliet Volume Descriptor Block(s) 1
Writing: End Volume Descriptor Start Block 19
Done with: End Volume Descriptor Block(s) 1
Writing: Version block Start Block 20
Done with: Version block Block(s) 1
Writing: Path table Start Block 21
Done with: Path table Block(s) 4
Writing: Joliet path table Start Block 25
Done with: Joliet path table Block(s) 4
Writing: Directory tree Start Block 29
Done with: Directory tree Block(s) 17
Writing: Joliet directory tree Start Block 46
Done with: Joliet directory tree Block(s) 15
Writing: Directory tree cleanup Start Block 61
Done with: Directory tree cleanup Block(s) 0
Writing: Extension record Start Block 61
Done with: Extension record Block(s) 1
Writing: The File(s) Start Block 62
17.24% done, estimate finish Fri Jun 17 14:09:51 2011
34.41% done, estimate finish Fri Jun 17 14:09:51 2011
51.63% done, estimate finish Fri Jun 17 14:09:51 2011
68.80% done, estimate finish Fri Jun 17 14:09:51 2011
86.03% done, estimate finish Fri Jun 17 14:09:52 2011
Total translation table size: 2048
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 8867
Total directory bytes: 32768
Path table size(bytes): 208
Done with: The File(s) Block(s) 28862
Writing: Ending Padblock Start Block 28924
Done with: Ending Padblock Block(s) 150
Max brk space used 21000
29074 extents written (56 MB)

Now you've a new minimal slax build in less than 60Mb !

root@slax:~/target# ls -la iso/
total 58220
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:10 ./
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 Jun 17 14:08 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 59543552 Jun 17 20:00 image.iso

As usual feel free to comment or add your suggestion to the article if you need it

 

Previous Chapters

 

As usual let me know your thoughts and drop a note below if you want


Have fun
Ben

 
Page 4 of 18

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