Home Linux Community Community Blogs Business (or Enterprise)

Community Blogs

How to make SLD64 transit longer distance than SFD64?

As we know, Huawei SFD64 is updated version of SLD64, for its transmission distance is further than SLD64.

Technically, in Huawei SDH transmission boards, SFD64 can transit longer than SLD64 in normal condition, but when you use DWDM color interface into SLD64, it can transit longer than SFD64. For when SFD64 with SFP or XFP, it can transit 40km, but when SLD64 equiped with DWDM color interface module, it has two options, 40km and 80km, which based on your maximum demand. 


Community-developed Open Source solutions in a corporate environment

The company 7iSolutions describes the issues which companies have to face when they decide to implement community-developed open source solutions. 7iSolutions describes what they do to offer an adequate solution for corporations.

The Univention Blog:


Pay attention to SSN1EAS2 Board Occasional Packet Loss or Ethernet Service Interruption on NG SDH Pr

Problem Description
Trigger condition:
1. SSN1EAS2 transmission board use FPGA 110.
2. Cross-connect boards in slot 10 are active cross-connect boards.
3. The PCB of a cross-connect board is SSN1SXCS1, SST1PSXCSA1, SST1PSXCSA, SST2PSXCS, or SSN2SXCS.
4. When the proceeding three conditions are all met, the problem occurs occasionally (about 10% probability) and is determined by SSN1EAS2 boards and cross-connect boards.


During an upgrade on the live network, the problem is easily triggered when the cross-connect board in slot 10 replaces that in slot 9 as an active one.
When an SSN1EAS2 board works with a cross-connect board whose PCB is SSN1SXCS1, SST1PSXCSA1, SST1PSXCSA, SST2PSXCS, or SSN2SXCS, there is a high probability that the problem may occur. When an SSN1EAS2 board works with other types of cross-connect boards, this problem never occurs on live networks and in test environment. For details about risky types of cross-connect boards, see the Risky Types of Cross-Connect Boards That May Encounter Header Jitters on FPGA 110 of SSN1EAS2 Boards When They Work Together.

1. Some packets of Ethernet services on an SSN1EAS2 board are lost, or Ethernet services are interrupted.
2. The board may repeatedly or occasionally reports service alarms related to huawei SDH or GFP services, such as B3_SD, HP_UNEQ, HP_RDI, T_LO**, ALM_GFP_DLFD, and FCS_ERR.
3. The active and standby cross-connect boards may report BUS_ERR alarms simultaneously, and alarm parameters indicate that the SSN1EAS2 board caused the alarm.
Cold reset cannot resolve the problem nor trigger the problem.
Identification methods:
1. If all of the following conditions are met, these fault symptoms are most probably caused by the SSN1EAS2 board:
− An SSN1EAS2 board uses FPGA 110.
− The cross-connect board in slot 10 is the active one.
− The cross-connect board is the type listed in the attachment Risky Types of Cross-Connect Boards That May Encounter Header Jitters on FPGA 110 of SSN1EAS2 Boards When They Work Together.

2. After the cross-connect board in slot 10 replaces that in slot 9, if fault symptoms on the SSN1EAS2 board are cleared, the problem is caused by the SSN1EAS2 board.

[Root Cause]
The design of the FPGA on an SSN1EAS2 board for cross-clock-domain has bugs. When the cross-connect board in slot 10 function as the active one, the headers output to the MAPPER and VSC9128 chips have jitters at the period of 77 Mbit/s. As a result, the VSC9128 chips fail to correctly receive service signals from the cross-connect boards. In addition, the services signals transmitted to the cross-boards may have jitters, resulting in bidirectional packet loss or service interruption.

[Impact and Risk]
Some packets of Ethernet services are lost, or Ethernet services are interrupted in the upstream and downstream direction.
Measures and Solutions
Recovery measures:
Replace the cross-connect board in slot 10 with that in slot 9 as the active one.
When an SSN1EAS2 board uses FPGA 110 or earlier, avoid using the cross-connect board in slot 10 as the active cross-connect.

Preventive Solutions:
1. Upgrade the FPGA (BOM: 05020AAE) used on an SSN1EAS2 board to version 120 or later, because the FPGAs resolve the design bugs for cross-clock-domain.
− For V100R008 and V100R009 versions, upgrade the device to V100R010C03SPC203 or later.
− For V100R010 versions, upgrade the device to V100R010C03SPC203 or later.
− For V200R011 versions, upgrade the device to V200R011C02SPC106 or later.
− For V200R012 versions, upgrade the device to V200R012C00SPC101/V200R012C01 or later.
During an upgrade, the board version needs to match the device version specified in the version mapping.

On the NE whose version is V100R010C03SPC202, the SSN1EAS2 board can use the software of V100R010C03SPC203 in a weak mapping mode. The software includes BIOS, board software, FPGA, and EPLD.

2. SSN3EAS2 boards can be used. Both SSN1EAS2 and SSN3EAS2 boards are 10GE Ethernet service processing boards. When using an SSN3EAS2 board, ensure that the device version supports the SSN3EAS2 board.


Can we boilerplate software architecture?

I have been programming for 12 years commercially now since I was 18 years old and fresh out of college, however I have been programming just for the love of it for close to 20 years.

In the early days I would describe myself as a "furious coder". I could produce 3,000 lines of code each day (sustained for years), whilst producing slightly less bugs than my colleagues.

After a year or so I noticed that logical separation of code was really important. So I created tiers (usually separated by process) so presentation, business/domain logic (BL), and data access (DAL) were all isolated.

Soon after I realised that separating logic was really really important. So started separating logic not just by tier but by integration (interoperability with remote systems) and implementation (project/customer logic). This created some pretty agile results that responded well to change.

Finally, I started reading about the SOLID design principals and my whole outlook on programming changed forever. I soon realised how hard software architecture actually was. By coding furiously, the "architecture" of each solution was incidental; areas such as exception handling, damage control and overall object responsibility were a constant challenge that I fought daily. I'd often "fix" a bug, only to find that actually all I'd done is push it into another "responsibility realm".

From then on I started working as Product Director at a security software company (near London, England). My personal focus has since been achieving the best possible software architecture, which could be reused elsewhere (read anywhere). The main challenge for the company was that we had a single software product that spanned retail, government, healthcare and financial verticals - a product that needed to be everything to everyone; for that modularity and the ability to quickly implement new integration code and implementation logic (even logic that conflicted between customers) was a necessity. At this point another separation was key: customer implementation logic needed to be kept separate, especially the parts that customers owned the rights to. Also, modules could then be sold off or made exclusive to a partner, without compromising the product itself.

I realise that there is not always a "one size fits all" for software solutions, but I do believe that all software solutions share similar requirements. They all need:

  • Isolated, configurable "modules" separating tiers, responsibility and customer-specific logic
  • Cross-cutting "aspects" such as logging, error handling, debugging aids (eg. performance counters)
  • A sensible approach to exception handling, including damage control
  • The ability to easily change the behaviour of components once the solution is deployed using dependency injection
  • A way of communicating between modules (M2M) even though modules are highly isolated
  • A way of keeping track of dependencies and a method of avoiding the entourage anti-pattern
  • Configurable workflow logic that defined the movement of data between logical tiers
  • A decision engine that allowed complex rules to be created, affecting the flow of data between modules

To that end, I believe there is probably a way to create a boilerplate architecture that will fit most software projects and I think I am pretty close to achieving the first iteration of this design. This would be platform, framework and even language agnostic.

Most have spent their energies developing new languages, runtimes, IDEs, and frameworks to make new and seasoned programmer's lives simpler. Agile is a method used to help design and deliver software solutions, but there doesn’t seem to be many projects/principals offering a definitive, practical software architecture boilerplate design that programmers can pick up and run with.

Software architecture is something I find of great interest and as I move into a more senior, management role this is where I am keen to leave a legacy for the next programmers.

Would you agree that creating a boilerplate software architecture design that could be downloaded and used within minutes would be of use to the programming community? Utilizing many other seasoned programmer’s experience (not just my own) all into a single design?

It obviously wouldn’t fit all situations, but I think that catering for the 80%ile would be ambitious but possible.

Something that enforced modularity, AOP, and most importantly: good logical separation of tiers and responsibilities out of the box.

Eventually, boilerplates for various languages/frameworks could be made available, freely for programmers to download and start programming in their chosen language within minutes, possibly even a "module store", providing integration with remote services or the Internet of Things (ITT), enabling separation between integration and implementation logic.

I'd be really interested in hearing your feedback in the comments below.


Developing history of Huawei optical transmission: 20 years of accumulations

Throughout the developing history of Huawei optical transmission, it is actually a process that bandwidth capacity constantly promoting and business efficiency continuous optimizing, while accompanied by a series of new problems and challenges and solutions generated.

With the rapid development of wireless data, home broadband and leased line services, bandwidth demand continuously rise,optical transmission experienced continuous evolution of technical solutions and network architecture (PDH, SDH, MSTP, WDM and OTN) - compared with PDH system, Huawei SDH not only enhanced capacity and but also improved network efficiency and operation and maintenance; with the development of network IP, SDH gradually evolve to MSTP platform; However, for the trunk line and urban core, the lack of capacity gradually highlighted, so the development of WDM is imperative.

In this process, Huawei adhere to customer-centric, and strive to go beyond, self-dependent innovation. From OTN stage initially to 100G, from super 100G to T-SDN commercial use globally, Huawei experienced 20 years of accumulations in optical transport field, from the "precedency" to "excellence."


Wearable Electronics Market - Global Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2020

Wearable Electronics are minute electronics devices worn by the consumer which enable wireless networking and mobile computing. The word “wearable technology” refers to any electronic device or product which can be worn by a person to add computing in his action or work and utilize technology to benefit advanced features and characteristics. Wearable electronics may consist of glasses, jewelry, headgear, belts, arm wear, wrist wear, leg wear, footwear, skin patches, and e-textiles.


In recent years, there has been lots of research and development going in the field of wearable electronics attributed to their popularity and wide acceptance in global market.

Buy full report:


The major application market of wearable electronics include, 


    • 1) Healthcare and Medical- blood pressure monitors, hearing Aids, continuous glucose monitoring, smart glasses and others 
    • 2) Fitness and Wellness- activity monitors, emotional measurement, foot pods and pedometer, head up display, sleep sensors, smart clothing, smart watches, sleep sensors and others
    • 3) Infotainment- head-up display, hand-worm terminals, head-up display, smart clothing, smart glasses and others
    • 4) Military- head-up display, smart clothing, smart glasses and others


North America is the largest market for wearable electronics followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. In the last few years, North America has been witnessing the fastest growth rate; however Asia Pacific region is expected to take over as the fastest growing market in upcoming years.


Some of the major drivers of the industry include increasing demand of consumers towards communication, networking, positioning and recognition technologies in compact and portable forms, developments in material science, augmented reality and chip evolution and low power inter device connectivity (Bluetooth 4.0, infra red and NFC). Some of the key challenges for the industry are thermal consideration, negative effect of radiation on human health, and device protection.


With the growth of sensors, particularly in the health and medical space, the potential uses of wearable computing technologies are quite extensive. Wearable electronics are expected to increase their adoption levels in different sectors such as health and fitness, gaming, fashion, mobile money, education and transportation.


Rising average life expectancy, baby boomers population and larger proportion of patients requiring long term treatment are some of the key drivers in healthcare and medicine segment whereas demands from professional athletes, recreational fitness consumers, and corporate wellness programs are propelling the market of wearable technology in fitness and wellness sector. The ongoing military up gradation programs around the globe such as, the U.S.’s ‘Future Force Warrior (FFW)’, Australia’s ‘Project Wundurra’, Israel’s ‘Integrated Advanced Soldier (IAS)’, and the U.K.’s ‘Future Infantry Soldier Technology’ are expected to increase the overall market share of wearable electronics market in military and defense.    

Some of the key players in the wearable electronics market include Adidas AG, Recon Instruments, Inc., Fibretronic Ltd., Jawbone, Inc., Fitbit, Inc., Nike, Inc. (U.S.), Olympus Corporation, and Weartech s.l, Vuzix Corporation , Google, Inc., Apple, Inc.,By-Wire.Net, Imprint Energy, Inc, Jawbone, Inc., O’neill Wetsuits LIC, Plastic Logic Ltd., Texas Instruments, Inc., Zoog Technologies, Inc., Weartech S.L, Shimmer Research, Inc., Vancive Medical Technologies, Infineon Technologies Ag, Glassup SRL, Eurotech S.P.A, and AT&T, Inc.


Request full TOC:


Key points covered in the report

  • Report segments the market on the basis of types, application, products, technology, etc (as applicable)
  • The report covers geographic segmentation

      • North America
      • Europe
      • Asia
      • RoW
  • The report provides the market size and forecast for the different segments and geographies for the period of 2010 to 2020
  • The report provides company profiles of some of the leading companies operating in the market
  • The report also provides porters five forces analysis of the market. 

Vim Tutorial for Beginners

Modifying the contents of a file within the Unix/Linux command line environment may be difficult for any Linux user, especially if they are new to the operating system. There are many different ways to modify the contents of a file within the UNIX command line, one method in particular is with the Vim command line text editor. Vim is a powerful text based application that can be used to create, modify or save text based files. The following tutorial will introduce you to the basic functionality of vim as well as how to utilize some of its most powerful features.

This introductory tutorial will teach you the basic functionality of vim as well as how to utilize some of its most powerful features.



TCPdump Tutorial for Beginners

Tcpdump is a UNIX/Linux command line tool used to sniff and analyze network packets. Tcpdump offers similar functionality to that of the popular Wireshark application when used in command line mode and allows you to apply various filters to limit packet collection or packet output.

This is an introductory tutorial to tcpdump, filtering packets, as well as applying various filters and expressions.


Open Cloud Alliance (OCA) - Some insights of its real strengths and benefits

The newly created Open Cloud Alliance is a network of software manufacturers, cloud service providers and system integrators providing a standardized cloud platform on the basis of open source software to offer flexibility and choice.

The formation of this alliance produced wide feedback in the press. Now, the initiator of this alliance, Peter Ganten, CEO of Univention, and Rafael Laguan, CEO of Open-Xchange and software partner of the alliance, both edited a post in their companies' blogs giving a personal insight on the real benefits and motives behind it.

Univention blog:

Open-Xchange blog:


How install a Firewall on Linux and block IP's that bruteforce your system

Whenever I setup a Linux VPS, the first thing I do is install a firewall. I have noticed an increase in attacks on my servers, especially from China. I use
Config Server Firewall (CFG) and Login Failure deamon (LFD) because they are easy to set up and provide additional features like suspicious file reporting and system monitoring.


OK335xS Single board computer with two Ethernet Ports based on TI Sitara AM335x

Forlinx Embedded Technology Co.,Ltd ( a global provider of ARM series single board computer.All products rangs from ARM9,ARM11,Cortex-A8 to Cortex-A9 platform.

OK335xS single board computer is one of  SDK board based on TI AM335x processor. after it is been launched, it has attracted many eyes from engineers all over the world.If you also have interests in it, please carefully check following contents for your reference.

OK335xS single board computer is a Cortex-A8 board based on TI AM3354 processor.It designs in the structure of CPU module(FET335xS)+ base board, and is used for commercial application(Temp range:-20℃~+70℃).and it support WinCE,Linux,Android/Starterware OS.

FET335xS CPU module is a high performance and cost effective module.It is designed as a  6-layer PCB board with the dimension of 42mm*52mm,and is with stamp hole interface.It integrates with 512M DDR3 RAM, and 256M SLC Nandflash for memory and support Ethernet,USB,UART,etc for connectivity.

and as for the base board, it measures 130mm*190mm and also support Ethernet, USB,CAN,485 bus function.Most importantly, OK335xS is the board with twoEthernet ports,which is a rare board based on Cortex-A8 platform.




The board  hardware resource are as follows:

FET335xS CPU Module Features

Key Parameters

CPU Processor: TI AM335X Cortex-A8

Main frequency: 800MHz

CPU Architecture Cortex-A8
FLASH 256M SLC NandFlash
Operating Temperature -20℃~+70℃
Dimension 5.2cm*4.2cm
Voltage 5V
Humidity 10%~90%
OS Android2.3/4.2, Linux3.2, WinCE7.0
Pre-installed System Linux3.2
Graphics Processor Power VR SGX530


USB 2.0 1x USB 2.0 HOST, 1x USB 2.0 OTG
Ethernet Dual Gigabit Ethernet
GPIOs More than 20
Video Decoder Software codec
2D / 3D Support
Audio interface IIS interface port
JTAG Support
E2PROM Support (Used for encryption)

OK335xS Base Board Features


1x SPI

  Power Supply



1x LED


Touch panel: support both resistive and capacitive;

Screen size: 4.3'', 5'', 7'', 8'', 10.4'' ;

Module: Support LCD to VGA module, LCD to LVDS module

  SD card slot

1x SD card slot



  Serial Port

3x serial port

USB Device

1x USB 2.0




1x RS485, Multiplexed with profibus


5x A/D


1x IIC

  User Key

5x user key


3x Audio(1 for Phone, 1 for MIC, 1 for Linein)

  Boot Switch

Set to boot from SD card or NAND Flash



USB Host

4x USB 2.0 Host


2x Gigabit Ethernet


1x CAN


2x PWM( 1x backlight, 1x buzzer)

What's more, custom service based on TI AM335x is also provided.

If you hope to know the quotation and other details, please directly contact  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .Thx.

Page 4 of 12

Upcoming Linux Foundation Courses

  1. LFS220 Linux System Administration
    30 Nov » 03 Dec - Virtual
  2. LFS416 Linux Security
    07 Dec » 10 Dec - Virtual
  3. LFD411 Embedded Linux Development
    07 Dec » 11 Dec - Atlanta

View All Upcoming Courses

Who we are ?

The Linux Foundation is a non-profit consortium dedicated to the growth of Linux.

More About the foundation...

Frequent Questions

Linux Training / Board