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How To : Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 3.14.1 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

     "The Linux Kernel 3.14.1 is now available for the users and all the users of 3.14 kernel series must upgrade", announced Greg Kroah-Hartman.This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 3.14.1 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.

 

Fixes

  • crypto: ghash-clmulni-intel - use C implementation for setkey()
  • m68k: Skip futex_atomic_cmpxchg_inatomic() test 
  • futex: Allow architectures to skip futex_atomic_cmpxchg_inatomic() test 
  • ARC: [nsimosci] Change .dts to use generic 8250 UART 
  • iwlwifi: mvm: rs: fix search cycle rules 
  • net/at91_ether: avoid NULL pointer dereference 
  • rds: prevent dereference of a NULL device in rds_iw_laddr_check 
  • isdnloop: several buffer overflows 
  • isdnloop: Validate NUL-terminated strings from user. 
  • net: vxlan: fix crash when interface is created with no group 
  • xen-netback: disable rogue vif in kthread context 
  • netlink: don't compare the nul-termination in nla_strcmp 
  • ipv6: some ipv6 statistic counters failed to disable bh 
  • xen-netback: BUG_ON in xenvif_rx_action() not catching overflow 
  • xen-netback: worse-case estimate in xenvif_rx_action is underestimating

Read More at YourOwnLinux.

 

Make Your Linux Machine An Internet Access Point [Hotspot]

It can be tough staying at a place without so much as a router, right? It's incredibly annoying, especially considering it's 2014 -- a year where technology is supposed to be at its best. Today, I thought it would be useful if I introduced you to a concept I consider totally badass. All you'll need is your Linux machine and an ethernet cable. What's that? No, this process won't ask for your firstborn in return -- it's not Micrsoft. It's kind of like reverse tethering. [Thanks for asking, imaginary person that I just created to answer my own question.]

 

Step 1: Add PPA

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8

Step 2: Update

sudo apt-get update


Step 3: Install

sudo apt-get install ap-hotspot


Step 4: Configure

sudo ap-hotspot configure


If you're connected to an Ethernet cable, it should detect your network as something like etch0 -- just continue. Once it asks to name your network, name it something like awesomenetwork. Your WPA password should be of the following length (this is what I use as my password: fivefifty. No longer, no shorter.

 

To Start

Sudo ap-hotspot start

To Stop

sudo ap-hotspot stop

To Restart

sudo ap-hotspot restart

 

5 Important cPanel Settings For Beginners

cPanel control panel is most widely used in the web hosting industry. The main reason behind the popularity of WHM / cPanel is the flexibility and the user friendliness offered. cPanel is easy to manage, easy to customize and it is backed by great quality support. Most of us dealing in the web hosting industry know about the potential of the cPanel control panel. However, if you are new to cPanel, there are a few things that are recommended for you for the initial phase.

Here is an insight on the 5 important cPanel settings for you:

Strong Password

Every user gets a username and password for logging into cPanel. The username and password provided for cPanel is also applicable to the MySQL database user, FTP account, email address and at times the system user login as well. The system user login can be used for accessing the server remotely through SSH (if this feature is enabled by the server administrator). Modifying the cPanel login password is an important action to be done initially. If your password can be easily retrieved or guessed by anyone, that person will also get unwarranted privileges to the server and this is dangerous.

It is important to follow good password practice. Some important tips for password management are mentioned below:

  • Keep changing your password
  • Avoid using dictionary words
  • Avoid using easy things like vehicle registration number, date of birth or phone number as password
  • Use a complex password that is hard to guess
  • Set the length of the password to 8 characters or more
  • Do not use the option of ‘remember password’ in any browser

Server Environment

Make sure that you have complete understanding of the server environment before using it. Some important aspects that you need to know include server operating system, server architecture, kernel version, the versions of the installed applications (Apache, PHP, MySQL, cPanel, Pearl). It is also important to know about the IP address and hosting package limitations. This information is available on the main page; it usually appears on the sidebar of the cPanel interface. A good hosting server should be operated on the updated version of the kernel and applications should be operated under the 64 bit architecture.

It is also crucial to check the cPanel service status. This can be done by logging into cPanel > Stats > Service Status. Here you can see the number of CPUs that are running on the server, memory usage and the disk space status. This feature will provide you with the real time information for the server. All the services should be up and running properly. Ideally, a stable server should run at below 80% of disk usage and below 10% of swap; the server load average should be 2 times below the total number of CPUs.

File & Directory Permissions

By default, with a cPanel hosting account, users get a home directory under /home/{username}. All the files and directories present under the user’s home directory should be operated on the respective permissions and ownership. The most important directory that should run with correct permissions and ownership is public_html. Before we proceed further, it is important for you to know how PHP is managed.

Create a phpinfo page under the public_html directory. Access this page through the browser and check the ‘Server API’. If the value is CGI / FastCGI, then the PHP handler is suPHP, FastCGI or CGI. Most of the web hosting companies use suPHP because of security verification and also because it is the default handler for the cPanel servers. Under suPHP, PHP is executed as a different process along with Apache. All the file permissions should be run under 644 and the directory permissions under 755. Permissions that are higher than this will result in ‘Internal Server Error’ when the PHP script is executed.

If the Server API value is Apache 2.0 handler, then PHP is run under DSO. This handler does not need any strict file permissions or ownership because the PHP file is completely handled by Apache.

You can utilize the cPanel file manager, FTP client or SSH access for fixing the permissions and ownership issues. Make sure to delete the phpinfo page once you have got the necessary information.

Add Protection

Even though the server administrator has the responsibility of managing protection and security, cPanel users can make use of the flexible cPanel interface for adding some protection to the domain, website and cPanel account. Enable the spam assassin (cPanel > Mail > Spam Assassin). This feature is not provided by some web hosting providers as a default because a domain that is newly registered does not receive any spam emails. Discard all the unrouted emails in the default address (cPanel > Mail > Default Address) that contain error to sender at SMTP time. Avoid using the options like ‘blackhole’ or ‘forward to email address’ unless they are actually required. Hackers might take the advantage of these two features for creating a DOS attack on the SMTP service.

If the FrontPage is not used, disable it (cPanel > Advanced > FrontPage Extensions). Check the ‘PHP disabled_function’ through phpinfo page. All the critical functions should be disabled inside the server.

Enable the hotlink protection through (cPanel > Security > Hotlink Protection) for preventing anyone from stealing your bandwidth. People might link your image to their website thus making a part of their content. Enable your website URL to only access static content like .png, .jpeg, .jpg and .bmp.

Notification & Monitoring

It is important to add a secondary email in order to receive notifications through cPanel. By default, the registered email of the user will be the primary contact. Go to the option – Update Contact Info (cPanel > Preferences > Update Contact Info) and add a secondary email that will serve as a backup in case the primary email cannot be reached.

Subscribe to the monitoring tools that are available online for monitoring your website and domain availability. Although this service is offered for free by some of the web hosting companies, it is always good to have another external monitoring source for accurate results. Configure the monitoring system in order to trigger and send notification emails / alerts to your email id.

The information contained in this article is useful for both, new cPanel users and for the users who have been using cPanel. By implementing the essential settings mentioned above, you will get better control over your website and domain name.

 

16 Commands to Check Hardware Information on Linux

Hardware information Like for every thing, there are plenty of commands to check information about the hardware of your linux system. Some commands report only specific hardware components like cpu or memory while the rest cover multiple hardware units. This post takes a quick look at some of the most commonly used commands to check information and configuration details about various hardware...

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How To : Install/Upgrade to Linux Kernel 3.13.9 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint Systems

     "The Linux Kernel 3.13.9 is now available for the users and all the users of 3.13 kernel series must upgrade", announced Greg Kroah-Hartman.This Linux Kernel version comes with plenty of fixes and improvements. This article will guide you to install or upgrade to Linux Kernel 3.13.9 in your Ubuntu or Linux Mint system.


Fixes

  • x86: fix boot on uniprocessor systems
  • Input: synaptics - add manual min/max quirk
  • netfilter: nf_conntrack_dccp: fix skb_header_pointer API usages
  • drm/i915: Undo gtt scratch pte unmapping again
  • mm: close PageTail race
  • Revert "xen: properly account for _PAGE_NUMA during xen pte translations"
  • Input: mousedev - fix race when creating mixed device
  • Input: synaptics - add manual min/max quirk for ThinkPad X240
  • Input: cypress_ps2 - don't report as a button pads
  • cgroup: protect modifications to cgroup_idr with cgroup_mutex
  • random32: avoid attempt to late reseed if in the middle of seeding
  • i2c: cpm: Fix build by adding of_address.h and of_irq.h
  • ext4: atomically set inode->i_flags in ext4_set_inode_flags()
  • net: mvneta: rename MVNETA_GMAC2_PSC_ENABLE to MVNETA_GMAC2_PCS_ENABLE
  • net: mvneta: fix usage as a module on RGMII configurations
  • xen/balloon: flush persistent kmaps in correct position

 

Read More at YourOwnLinux.

 

Check hardware information on Linux with hwinfo command

Hwinfo The hwinfo command is a very handy command line tool that can be used to probe for details about hardware components. It reports information about most hardware units like cpu, hdd controllers, usb controllers, network card, graphics cards, multimedia, printers etc. Hwinfo depends on the libhd library to gather hardware information which depends on libhal. Hwinfo is available in the repositories of Ubuntu and Debian. # ubuntu, debian $ sudo apt-get install hwinfo To install...
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How to install hwinfo (hardware information tool) on Fedora 20

Hwinfo - Hardware Information Tool Hwinfo is a command line utility to probe and gather information about hardware components on a system in a easy to read format. It was initially a opensuse specific tool that was later compiled for other systems like Debian, Fedora, Arch etc. Hwinfo is not available in the Fedora repositories, and neither is it present in any of the popular 3rd party repositories like repoforge or rpmfusion. Install Hwinfo on Fedora Here we are going to install hwinfo on Fedora 20. The hwinfo rpm packages for Fedora are available on the opensuse site at the following hidden place http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:/zhonghuaren/ The...
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How to install hwinfo on Fedora 19/20 and CentOS 5/6

Hwinfo - Hardware Information Tool Hwinfo is a command line utility to probe and gather information about hardware components on a system in a easy to read format. It was initially a opensuse specific tool that was later compiled for other systems like Debian, Fedora, Arch etc. Hwinfo is not available in the Fedora repositories, and neither is it present in any of the popular 3rd party repositories like repoforge or rpmfusion. Install Hwinfo on Fedora Here we are going to install hwinfo on Fedora 20. The hwinfo rpm packages for Fedora are available on the opensuse site at the following hidden...
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Linux Filesystem Simplified

This following set of commands immensely simplifies handling almost all the filesystem related issues. To know more about it check here Linux Filesystem Simplified

 

18 commands to monitor network bandwidth on Linux server

This post mentions some linux command line tools that can be used to monitor the network usage. These tools monitor the traffic flowing through network interfaces and measure the speed at which data is currently being transferred. Incoming and outgoing traffic is shown separately. Some of the commands, show the bandwidth used by individual processes. This makes it easy to detect a process that is overusing network bandwidth. The tools have different mechanisms of generating the traffic report. Some of the tools like nload read the "/proc/net/dev" file...
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10 examples of Linux ss command to monitor network connections

ss - socket statistics In a previous tutorial we saw how to use the netstat command to get statistics on network/socket connections. However the netstat command has long been deprecated and replaced by the ss command from the iproute suite of tools. The ss command is capable of showing more information than the netstat and is faster. The netstat command reads various /proc files to gather information. However this approach falls weak when...
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