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Using Shell commands to manage your text files —— Chinese Simplified

sort命令

sort命令的功能是对文件中的各行进行排序。sort命令有许多非常实用的选项,这些选项最初是用来对数据库格式的文件内容进行各种排序操作的。实际上,sort命令可以被认为是一个非常强大的数据管理工具,用来管理内容类似数据库记录的文件。

Sort命令将逐行对文件中的内容进行排序,如果两行的首字符相同,该命令将继续比较这两行的下一字符,如果还相同,将继续进行比较。

语法:

sort [选项] 文件

ËØ¥ÊòéÔºösortÂëΩ‰ª§ÂØπÊåáÂÆöÊñቪ∂‰∏≠ÊâÄÊúâÁöÑË°åËøõË°åÊéíÂ∫èÔºåÂπ∂Â∞ÜÁªìÊûúÊòæÁ§∫Âú®Ê†áÂáÜËæìÂá∫‰∏ä„ÄǶlj∏çÊåáÂÆöËæìÂÖ•Êñቪ∂Êàñ‰ΩøÁ- ”ÔºåÂàôË°®Á§∫ÊéíÂ∫èÂÜÖÂÆπÊù•Ëá™Ê†áÂáÜËæìÂÖ•„ÄÇ

sort排序是根据从输入行抽取的一个或多个关键字进行比较来完成的。排序关键字定义了用来排序的最小的字符序列。缺省情况下以整行为关键字按ASCII字符顺序进行排序。

改变缺省设置的选项主要有:

- m 若给定文件已排好序,合并文件。

- c 检查给定文件是否已排好序,如果它们没有都排好序,则打印一个出错信息,并以状态值1退出。

- u 对排序后认为相同的行只留其中一行。

- o 输出文件 将排序输出写到输出文件中而不是标准输出,如果输出文件是输入文件之一,sort先将该文件的内容写入一个临时文件,然后再排序和写输出结果。

改变缺省排序规则的选项主要有:

- d 按字典顺序排序,比较时仅字母、数字、空格和制表符有意义。

- f 将小写字母与大写字母同等对待。

- I 忽略非打印字符。

- M ‰Ωú‰∏∫Êúà‰ªΩÊØîËæÉÔºö“JAN<FEB

- r 按逆序输出排序结果。

+posl - pos2 指定一个或几个字段作为排序关键字,字段位置从posl开始,到pos2为止(包括posl,不包括pos2)。如不指定pos2,则关键字为从posl到行尾。字段和字符的位置从0开始。

- b 在每行中寻找排序关键字时忽略前导的空白(空格和制表符)。

- t separator 指定字符separator作为字段分隔符。

 

uniq命令

文件经过处理后在它的输出文件中可能会出现重复的行。例如,使用cat命令将两个文件合并后,再使用sort命令进行排序,就可能出现重复行。这时可以使用uniq命令将这些重复行从输出文件中删除,只留下每条记录的唯一样本。

语法:

uniq [选项] 文件

ËØ¥ÊòéÔºöËøô‰∏™ÂëΩ‰ª§ËتÂèñËæìÂÖ•Êñቪ∂ÔºåÂπ∂ÊØîËæÉÁõ∏ÈǪÁöÑË°å„ÄÇÂú®Ê≠£Â∏∏ÊÉÖÂܵ‰∏ãÔºåÁ¨¨‰∫å‰∏™Âè䉪•ÂêéÊõ¥Â§ö‰∏™Èáç§çË°åÂ∞ÜË¢´Âà†ÂéªÔºåË°åÊØîËæÉÊòØʆπÊçÆÊâÄÁî®Â≠óÁ¨¶ÈõÜÁöÑÊéíÂ∫èÂ∫èÂàóËøõË°åÁöÑ„ÄÇËØ•ÂëΩ‰ª§Âä†Â∑•ÂêéÁöÑÁªìÊûúÂÜôÂà∞ËæìÂá∫Êñቪ∂‰∏≠„ÄÇËæìÂÖ•Êñቪ∂ÂíåËæìÂá∫Êñቪ∂ÂøÖÈ°ª‰∏çÂêå„ÄǶÇÊûúËæìÂÖ•Êñቪ∂Á- ”Ë°®Á§∫ÔºåÂàô‰ªéʆáÂáÜËæìÂÖ•ËتÂèñ„ÄÇ

该命令各选项含义如下:

- c 显示输出中,在每行行首加上本行在文件中出现的次数。它可取代- u和- d选项。

- d 只显示重复行。

- u 只显示文件中不重复的各行。

- n 前n个字段与每个字段前的空白一起被忽略。一个字段是一个非空格、非制表符的字符串,彼此由制表符和空格隔开(字段从0开始编号)。

+n 前n个字符被忽略,之前的字符被跳过(字符从0开始编号)。

- f n 与- n相同,这里n是字段数。

- s n 与+n相同,这里n是字符数。

 

Using Shell commands to backup and compress —— Chinese Simplified

tar命令

tar可以为文件和目录创建档案。利用tar,用户可以为某一特定文件创建档案(备份文件),也可以在档案中改变文件,或者向档案中加入新的文件。tar最初被用来在磁带上创建档案,现在,用户可以在任何设备上创建档案,如软盘。利用tar命令,可以把一大堆的文件和目录全部打包成一个文件,这对于备份文件或将几个文件组合成为一个文件以便于网络传输是非常有用的。Linux上的tar是GNU版本的。

语法:tar [主选项+辅选项] 文件或者目录

使用该命令时,主选项是必须要有的,它告诉tar要做什么事情,辅选项是辅助使用的,可以选用。

主选项:

c 创建新的档案文件。如果用户想备份一个目录或是一些文件,就要选择这个选项。

r 把要存档的文件追加到档案文件的未尾。例如用户已经作好备份文件,又发现还有一个目录或是一些文件忘记备份了,这时可以使用该选项,将忘记的目录或文件追加到备份文件中。

t 列出档案文件的内容,查看已经备份了哪些文件。

u 更新文件。就是说,用新增的文件取代原备份文件,如果在备份文件中找不到要更新的文件,则把它追加到备份文件的最后。

x 从档案文件中释放文件。

辅助选项:

b 该选项是为磁带机设定的。其后跟一数字,用来说明区块的大小,系统预设值为20(20*512 bytes)。

f 使用档案文件或设备,这个选项通常是必选的。

k 保存已经存在的文件。例如我们把某个文件还原,在还原的过程中,遇到相同的文件,不会进行覆盖。

m 在还原文件时,把所有文件的修改时间设定为现在。

M 创建多卷的档案文件,以便在几个磁盘中存放。

v 详细报告tar处理的文件信息。如无此选项,tar不报告文件信息。

w 每一步都要求确认。

z 用gzip来压缩/解压缩文件,加上该选项后可以将档案文件进行压缩,但还原时也一定要使用该选项进行解压缩。

gzip命令

减少文件大小有两个明显的好处,一是可以减少存储空间,二是通过网络传输文件时,可以减少传输的时间。gzip是在Linux系统中经常使用的一个对文件进行压缩和解压缩的命令,既方便又好用。

语法:gzip [选项] 压缩(解压缩)的文件名

各选项的含义:

-c 将输出写到标准输出上,并保留原有文件。

-d 将压缩文件解压。

-l 对每个压缩文件,显示下列字段:

压缩文件的大小

未压缩文件的大小

压缩比

未压缩文件的名字

-r 递归式地查找指定目录并压缩其中的所有文件或者是解压缩。

-t 测试,检查压缩文件是否完整。

-v 对每一个压缩和解压的文件,显示文件名和压缩比。

-num 用指定的数字num调整压缩的速度,-1或-fast表示最快压缩方法(低压缩比),-9或-best表示最慢压缩方法(高压缩比)。系统缺省值为6。

unzip命令

用MS Windows下的压缩软件winzip压缩的文件如何在Linux系统下展开呢?可以用unzip命令,该命令用于解扩展名为.zip的压缩文件。

语法:unzip [选项] 压缩文件名.zip

各选项的含义分别为:

-x 文件列表 解压缩文件,但不包括指定的file文件。

-v 查看压缩文件目录,但不解压。

-t 测试文件有无损坏,但不解压。

-d 目录 把压缩文件解到指定目录下。

-z 只显示压缩文件的注解。

-n 不覆盖已经存在的文件。

-o 覆盖已存在的文件且不要求用户确认。

-j 不重建文档的目录结构,把所有文件解压到同一目录下。

 

Checking for the latest Apache source version - Lazy sysadmin version...

This is a short little write-up on how to stay current with the latest version of the Apache HTTP server. Since I crated a script to do all the hard work, I will mostly explain the sequence of events and additional steps you may need to take before and after the script is run.

High Level Steps

The steps that we will take is as follow:

Preparation:

  • Import the Apache PGP KEYS file (once off)
  • Prep our environment (once off)
  • Get the script!


Actions in the script:

  • Load our current version
  • Go through the shortlist of mirrors (loop) and process on the first positive match
  • Get the list of files
  • Extract the version info from the file
  • Is there a new version available (compare with our current latest version)? No - EXIT; YES carry on...
  • Download the file
  • Security check (MD5 and PGP)
  • Notify
  • Update latest current version
  • Run additional scripts
  • STOP

Finally we take a look at actions we will typically take after we have the source.

Preperation

PGP Keys:

If you have not done so already, get the latest KEYS file from the main Apache site:
$ wget http://www.apache.org/dist/httpd/KEYS
$ gpg --import KEYS

If you need more info about the gpg application, please have a look here: http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.en.html


The environment the script will run in:

You should find a place to store the downloaded files and the tracker file. The script by default put's everything in /tmp - but this is not ideal as it get's cleaned out from time to time and the files will be lost after a reboot.

 

On RedHat based systems, I would suggest /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES/ as the destination directory for the Apache source. You could place the tracker file in your home directory if you want.


Getting the script:

Download the latest version of the script:
$ wget http://sites.google.com/site/unforgetstuff/Home/perl-stuff/check_latest_apache_version.pl?attredirects=0

Dependencies - Perl modules:

Some of the dependencies may be available on your Linux distro. If it's not, you can install them using either instruction from http://www.cpan.org/modules/INSTALL.html or http://www.perl.com/doc/manual/html/lib/CPAN.html

 

In the future I hope to add support for:
Right now, I use the gpg app just to report the result.

Configuring the script

If you open the downloaded file, you will see all the parameters you can change is in the top 30 odd lines.

$branch - Just set this to the major branch you are watching. For me this is 2.2 (script default)

@mirrors - This is a list of mirrors. You MUST have at least one. More is better, for in case your primary mirror is not available.

The other variables should be fairly self explanatory :-)

Running the Script

After you have downloaded, you can just change the permissions to make it executable and run it first by hand to test and when you are happy with the results add it to your crontab :-)

Conclusion

This was one of those quick morning hacks and I will be using and improving the script in the following months.

For RedHat(RPM) based systems, I suggest you look at ways to use the post action script to automatically build your next RPM. You are of course welcome to post that bit on your blog or on the Apache Group page.

 

 

Teacher threatens to call the cops over Linux - HeliOS and Linux-hating teacher kiss and make up

A teacher has thrown a student into detention and threatened to call the police for using Linux in her classroom.

The teacher spotted one of her students giving a demonstration of the HeliOS distro to other students. In a somewhat over-the-top reaction, she confiscated the CDs, put the student on detention and whipped off a letter to the HeliOS Project threatening to report it to the police for distributing illegal software.

"I am sure you strongly believe in what you are doing but I cannot either support your efforts or allow them to happen in my classroom," writes the teacher, identified only as Karen.

"At this point, I am not sure what you are doing is legal. No software is free and spreading that misconception is harmful. I will research this as time allows and I want to assure you, if you are doing anything illegal, I will pursue charges as the law allows.

"I along with many others tried Linux during college and I assure you, the claims you make are grossly over-stated and hinge on falsehoods. I admire your attempts in getting computers in the hands of disadvantaged people but putting Linux on these machines is holding our kids back," she writes.

Not content with completely missing the point of Linux, Karen concluded by throwing down the ultimate insult to the Linux advocates: "This is a world where Windows runs on virtually every computer and putting on a carnival show for an operating system is not helping these children at all.

"I am sure if you contacted Microsoft, they would be more than happy to supply you with copies of an older verison of Windows and that way, your computers would actually be of service to those receiving them..."

The HeliOS project members were understandably upset, and quickly fired off a reply.

"Please...investigate to your heart's content. Linux is a free as-in-cost and free as-in-license operating system. It was designed specifically for those purposes...

"I don't know when you attended college Karen but the Linux of even two years ago pales in feature and ability to what there is available now... and that in turn will pale in a year's time. Linux is superior to Microsoft Windows in so many ways, they are too numerous to mention here."

The letter and reply can be read in full on the HeliOS Project blog.

HeliOS founder Ken Stark has apologised to the US teacher who threatened to call the police for using Linux in her classroom.

Stark's blog told how the teacher, known only as Karen, accused the HeliOS project of holding back children and committed the cardinal sin of encouraging the Linux advocates to contact Microsoft for old copies of Windows if they wanted to help children.

Stark says he regrets the media storm he created. "Instead of crafting a measured, count-for-count personal response, I chose to share her obvious ignorance with members of the Linux Community," he writes on the <HeliOS blog

"It was meant to illustrate the maddening ignorance and bias a Linux Advocate faces in a Microsoft Windows world. It was also meant to digitally spank the hand of the offender. It was a good direction to go I thought.

"Things pretty much turned to fecal flakes from there."

Stark claims he was contacted by journalists from all over the world, who wanted him to name and shame the teacher - one UK magazine offered to donate $1,000 to his project for her full name.

However, the call he wasn't expecting came from Karen herself, who asked the HeliOS man why he had "thrown her to the wolves?".

"Karen and I have talked on the phone now for a couple of hours, here and there," Stark adds. "We've come to understand each other more and had she said some of the things in her email that she said during our phone conversations... this black ink on white digital paper probably wouldn't exist. And neither would over 2,000 comments that were less than kind on one end of it and absolutely brutal on the other."

Stark concludes that misguided teachers aren't his real enemy. "Karen seems to be a good teacher, and as she stated to me today, she has learned more about the tech world in a few days than she's learned in five years. That's because she's trapped in a world of Windows. Most people are."

 Link to story:  http://www.pcpro.co.uk/news/242520/teacher-threatens-to-call-the-cops-over-linux.html

 

Installing Hamachi on CentOS 5

LogMeIn Hamachi is a VPN service that easily sets up in 10 minutes, and enables secure remote access to your business network, anywhere there's an Internet connection.

It works with your existing firewall, and requires no additional configuration. Hamachi is the first networking application to deliver an unprecedented level of direct peer-to-peer connectivity. It is simple, secure, and cost-effective.

Download latest hamachi version

# wget http://files.hamachi.cc/linux/hamachi-0.9.9.9-20-lnx.tar.gz

Unpack hamachi-0.9.9.9-20-lnx.tar.gz

# tar -zxvf hamachi-0.9.9.9-20-lnx.tar.gz

Installing Hamachi

# cd hamachi-0.9.9.9-20-lnx

# make install

Run tuncfg

# /sbin/tuncfg

After installation, issue the following commands

Create keys and set configuration directory

# hamachi-init -c /etc/hamachi

Start hamachi

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi start

Login to hamachi network

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi login

Create your personal network and password protect it

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi create YOUR_NETWORK
Password:
Creating YOUR_NETWORK .. ok

Go-Online on your network

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi go-online YOUR_NETWORK

Joining other networks

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi join OTHER_NETWORK password

Leaving other networks

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi leave OTHER_NETWORK

Changing nick name

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi set-nick NEW_NICK

Getting a list of networks & members

# hamachi -c /etc/hamachi list

Hope this helps
 

Linux in healthcare

Linux in healthcare is a tale of things seen and unseen. Linux/Open Source have enjoyed tremendous popularity in embedded systems and networks for major technologies used in healthcare that healthcare providers may not even be aware of. It has also experienced a steady adoption rate in healthcare applications. Nevertheless, the adoption rate of Linux/Open Source in healthcare lags that of other industries. Here’s why, and how that could change.

In 2006, Linux server sales are outpacing overall server sales by an 8:1 ratio, and Linux is outpacing Windows as an operating system in new sales at a rate of 5:1. This growth is occurring across all industry sectors, including healthcare, but healthcare presents a unique challenge. The criticality of patient care, coupled with intense regulation and limited IT budgets, delays adoptions of new technologies in healthcare.

“Many healthcare organizations have been using the same technologies for 20 or 30 years,” said Chris Bidleman, Director of Healthcare Solutions for the Americas for Novell. “In our healthcare trade show booth year after year, we had about the same volume of visitors. But after the healthcare information management initiatives (HIMS) last year, we noticed a significant increase in conversations around our trade booth at healthcare shows about Linux and Open Source. In fact, there was probably more volume in visitors and organizations at our healthcare trade booth last year than in all the previous years combined.”

Bidleman says that Novell has seen many hospitals asking about the Linux desktop, which has begun to open some eyes because it can save $50-$300 per desktop in licensing and management expenses. Nurses and other healthcare administrative staff who don’t typically use Microsoft’s Office products can just as easily work on Linux desktops, where navigation and other functions are straightforward, and learning curves are easy to manage.

“Overall, there is a large market opportunity for Linux in hospitals — but we see everyone moving toward information sharing and interoperability, which Linux/Open Source offers,” said Tom Wunderlich, Red Hat’s Product Management Director for Vertical Markets.

Red Hat, Novell, IBM and others acknowledge a lot of interest in Linux servers from the middle tier market of healthcare providers, who do not have the history of mainframe investments that large healthcare organizations have. “What’s unique about healthcare in 2006 is that, for the first time, small- and medium-sized organizations will spend more in cumulative dollars than large-scale organizations on IT,” said Scott Handy, Vice President of Worldwide Linux and Open Source, IBM-wide Infrastructure Initiative, IBM Systems and Technology Group. “Overall, the U.S. spends 1.7 trillion dollars on healthcare annually, so even a small percentage of revenue allocation to IT is a big number.”

Mature Linux platforms offer better performance, lower cost, and superior openness than Unix, a traditional mainstay in many smaller office and research laboratories. The importance of commercial Linux is also central to healthcare organizations. Nevertheless, there is still a lingering perception that Linux is for hobbyists and not for mission-critical applications.

The Chicken and the Egg

Commercial Linux is central to most healthcare buying decisions because healthcare providers want the assurance and the backing of strong vendors that will stand behind hardware and applications. They also want packaged applications that will fill the niches that they need to fill.

Here is the dilemma: There are still relatively few clinical systems and databases based on Linux and Open Source environments. Traditional healthcare software providers have proprietary solutions that they are slow to convert to a Linux platform — and the only thing that can change this is direct market pressure from the healthcare providers themselves.

Lille Corporation, a New York-based Novell reseller, decided to take an aggressive approach to Linux/Open Source. “In the early 1990s, we asked ourselves how we could deliver medical software to physicians throughout the U.S., and we began to look at different tools that we could use to produce the software,” said Jordan Rosen, Lille’s President. “We performed a comprehensive analysis of all of the tools and commercial libraries that could be used in software development, and we found a huge body of resources in Open Source. We also discovered that application prototyping with Open Source was superior to prototyping capabilities in other toolsets we had analyzed. Open Source applications offered outstanding functionality, and there was also the ability to get rapid support with such a well-established worldwide community of software developers.”

Rosen explained the value to product developers of tools that give you source code that you can modify and compile into your own products. “This made a tremendous difference to us in our speed to market,” said Rosen. “We found we could develop software and deliver it for use in our software as a service sales model. In doing this, we were able to provide our healthcare customers with a low-cost, managed, and secure solution. It was this turning point that convinced us to develop with Linux exclusively.”

Lille’s story is not unusual. Many commercial developers of medical software on the Windows platform actively use Open Source for underlying capabilities like security, compression, and Web services, and because Open Source works on so many different computing platforms. These vendors recognize the value of Open Source as a way to leverage and get products to market without reinventing the wheel. Better yet, the use of Open Source is entirely transparent to customers using Windows as their desktop operating system.

Rosen notes that the original MUMPS (now known as “M”) operating system first developed at Massachusetts General Hospital was used to write virtually every type of medical application for the VA hospitals. M is public domain software that can be taken by any vendor and adapted for commercial use and sale. Many healthcare software companies that are looking at Linux/Open Source versions of their products are building products around the framework and the code repository already offered by M, to keep costs down and speed time to market. At the same time, these software companies are hearing more from their healthcare customers about the new applications that they would like to see that can interoperate with both Linux and Windows.

Drivers of Linux/Open Source Adoption

Analysts and industry practitioners have differing opinions of the drivers that are now behind healthcare’s migration into Linux and Open Source, but there are seven major drivers that most agree on:

  • Cost Savings and Reductions. Linux and Open Source saves money: commodity servers outfitted with Linux are cheaper than specialized or proprietary hardware. Open Source reduces licensing fees. And the perception is that Linux and Open Source lower IT administrative costs.

    “The biggest driver for healthcare organizations is reduced costs,” said Bidleman. “More money per capita is spent on healthcare in the United States than in any other country. At the same time, U.S. healthcare has one of the lowest IT expenditure rates, at about 2-5 percent of revenues. Compare this to healthcare organizations in other countries that have an IT expenditure rate that is 5-10 percent of revenues.”

    Linux and Open Source also promises to ease system integration. Without much integration, current hospital applications introduce tremendous waste and cost on a daily basis. For example, if a patient switches hospitals, the institutions often have to fax documents back and forth and re-key data. Integration drives these costs down since data is only entered once, and then routed to wherever it is needed.

  • Better Patient Service. Today’s healthcare environment is extremely competitive, and hospitals, clinics, and other institutions are enhancing patient service to differentiate. “Patient service is a very competitive factor for healthcare organizations,” said IBM’s Scott Handy. “When the patient doesn’t have to re-supply information, x-rays, and so on, there is less frustration. Integrated information systems can deliver this.”

    There is an even more important reason for systems to integrate. In the U.S., it is estimated that 150,000 deaths occur each year because of avoidable medical errors. An electronic patient record and other system integration can preclude many such accidents.

  • Improved Information Sharing. HIMS and other healthcare initiatives, along with the mandate for an electronic medical record by 2014, are driving healthcare organizations of all sizes to do whatever they can to enhance information sharing. As part of the effort, they are exerting pressures on their hardware and software providers to help.

    “The key is adopting standards in these areas: shipments of documents, scanning of documents, content such as x-rays and scans, and data queries,” said Scott Handy. “If we can get a full-blown adoption of this by vendors, large, small and medium sized healthcare organizations will all have the support levels from their vendors that they need and we can provide an “on ramp” with affordable solutions for virtually any organization.”

  • Satisfactory Vendor Support and the Right Solutions. Healthcare providers want to see credible vendors with strong applications and support organizations backing Linux/Open Source. This is the “chicken and the egg” dilemma described earlier, because while vendors wait for customers to justify Linux/Open Source ports or investments, customers wait for deliverables.
  • Vendor Independence. Fenced in by proprietary vendors and forced to pay the high costs of technology licenses and support, healthcare organizations see Linux and Open Source as a way to assert independence. “Even if organizations are using a major brand of Linux, they know that they can easily move to other Linux distributions,” said Michael Goulde, healthcare analyst for Forrester, Inc.
  • Adoption by Large Healthcare Providers. Goulde also believes that many healthcare organizations are smaller clinics that look for dollar savings but also proven applications. “The Linux market is moving slower because many of these organizations or companies are reluctant to move forward until the market does,” said Goulde. “They want to see larger organizations making investments in Linux and Open Source, and they want to see vendors more aggressive in providing Linux and Open Source applications.”
  • Requirements of the Global Healthcare Environment. A key driver for hardware and software vendors is the global environment. China is an enormous market opportunity for these companies, but they have to be able to offer Linux solutions to compete there. Europe is also largely Linux-based.
In addition, people (and patients) today are highly mobile. Insurers and healthcare organizations want to know that there are options for healthcare outside of the U.S. “Behind the scene” medical processes also cross national lines. For instance, a doctor or a radiologist can read an x-ray and dictate an analysis which is then transcribed at home by a transcriber on a PC, or in China or India.

Leading Applications

The leading applications in healthcare that are based on Linux and Open Source are those that are typically hidden from view from all but IT. The applications are embedded systems in medical equipment like CT scanners and network applications, and in Web and print servers and DNS and proxy servers.

“The GE 64-slice CT scanner is the latest technology for imaging using CT,” said Jordan Rosen. “It can synchronize x-rays with your heartbeat and take detailed pictures between beats for clarity. These images are capturing so much detail that it’s getting to the point where you can see inside coronary vessels without using invasive procedures like catheterization. With this software, it is even possible to do 3D reconstruction of the heart. The entire software suite for this product is based on Linux and Open Source. All of the workstation viewers are Linux.”

The push for healthcare information sharing and an electronic medical record by 2014 also has organizations looking at Linux/Open Source, with its promise of standard interfaces that applications can easily integrate with.

“Linux and Open Source have great opportunities in the area of information sharing,” said Scott Handy. “Under President Bush, the electronic medical record (EMR) is being mandated to be a widespread reality by the year 2014. To this end, an Integrated Healthcare Infrastructure (IHI) standard has been defined. Here at IBM, we have built the first implementation of it, and we anticipate strong adoption by large healthcare organizations. If you are a small or medium sized healthcare organization, you need to partner with someone that can get you to the same set of standards.

We believe that we can deliver a more open version of IHI by using Open Source and Linux technology that is standards-based and scalable to the cost structure of smaller organizations. In this way, the entire healthcare information exchange can be facilitated.”

Handy explains that to attain a universal EMR, every vendor has to support the same set of interfaces. In 2005, IBM embarked on a mission to rewrite its proprietary interfaces to an Open Standards protocol, using Eclipse as a foundation. It implemented HIT as a research project, got hospitals to connect to it, and convinced business partners to adopt it.

“The options for vendors are to not use standards and to write the interfaces for the EMR themselves, which is expensive—or to use Open Source standards,” said Handy. “To the degree that everyone adopts the Open Source standards and uses the same code, we will have heightened interoperability and integration.”

Slower to move and yet still moving forward, are administrative and office applications that use Linux/Open Source. Since many healthcare personnel have extensive skills in Office applications, and since Linux/Open Source presently has weaknesses in areas like spreadsheet software, the main activity for Linux/Open Source on administrative applications has been in areas like portable kiosk stations for nurses and/or other administrative applications that do not require Microsoft Office.

“There are opportunities for sales on the server side, but the desktop area has been much slower to move into,” said Ce Ce Bowman, Industry Marketing Manager for Healthcare, Novell. “In general, IT is not receptive to having to manage two different operating system environments (Linux and Windows, or Linux and UNIX). ”

Jordan Rosen of Lille Corporation reported one mobile communications package for ambulances that Lille created that has been very successful. “Ambulances need effective mobile communications from their laptops, and we found that it was possible to develop a low cost Linux-Open Source solution by using elements of amateur radio technology and combining them with robust security, high reliability, low cost and scalability,” said Rosen. “This solved the problems of our customers, who were frustrated with antiquated systems and questionable systems stability—and who at the same time had to posture themselves for rapid growth.

“The architecture we sell is a thin-client Linux deployment that runs Citrix servers under Linux and provides end users with 80 percent of their needs through Linux-based software like Mozilla and Firefox. The clients can run native Linux applications, but they can also run Windows applications if that is what the user needs. It can scale from five to 10,000 desktops. With this kind of flexibility and the ability to use both Linux and Windows, organizations are well-positioned to respond to any business need with their software of choice.”

Barriers to entry

Linux/Open Source is moving forward, but there are still major “barriers to entry” in healthcare that must be overcome. These include concerns about security, constraints on change in IT, and a general lack of understanding about Linux/Open Source.

There are some perceptions that Linux is not secure. In reality, it is a more secure operating system than Windows. With Linux/Open Source, everyone can see the code before it is compiled, and verify that there are no “back doors.” Open Source can also incorporate data encryption, access, biometrics, and other special forms of security. Both Linux and Unix have an EAL+ 4 security rating.

Healthcare IT is also subject to system “change constraints” for reasons of cost, replacement pains and general inertia. “Like all technology transformations, there is always a group that says, ‘If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it,’” said Scott Handy. A complement to this problem is the dearth of vendor-supplied clinical applications using Linux.

“We keep an eye on the ecosystem of healthcare system integrators and technology suppliers,” said Red Hat’s Tom Wunderlich. “We ask ourselves, ‘How can we be sure that they are integrated into Linux hardware and Open Source software?’ We certify partners in both the hardware and software areas. The goal is that all systems that run on Windows or Unix can run in Linux also. When the end customers are demanding high performance, low cost solutions, it is incumbent on suppliers to provide them.”

Healthcare executives are still exploring and learning about Linux and Open Source. In many organizations, the knowledge of the Linux/Open Source value proposition still resides with the technicians, and not with the decision-makers.

Future Growth

Most industry observers feel that healthcare’s uptake of Linux can dramatically increase, pending advancements in several key areas:

  • Change. As IT asset cycles run their course and servers and clients are up for replacement, some of those replacements will be based on Linux. Microsoft’s new Vista operating system might also be a contributor, since Vista is a dramatic departure from Windows and is likely to cause retraining of office personnel on Microsoft applications. If extensive re-training is necessary, it might be enough to make healthcare organizations consider a migration to Open Source office applications, which are less expensive to license and more akin to what people are already used to with Windows.
  • Connectivity and Integration. Linux/Open Source is already enjoying considerable success in healthcare network infrastructures and embedded systems in medical equipment. Meanwhile, the push for an electronic medical record (EMR) makes Linux/Open Source a logical choice for information sharing. In the future, using multiple core processors will enable organizations to handle multiple information services such as real-time video, scans, correspondence and other network applications.
  • Partnering for Delivery of Critical End Applications. Healthcare end applications using Linux/Open Source remain in short supply, but “critical mass” vendors like IBM, Red Hat and Novell are starting to tip the scales to where both healthcare providers and application suppliers are engaged in Linux/Open Source projects with important deliverables.

    “There is a big opportunity for healthcare organizations to participate in Open Source projects,” said Red Hat’s Tom Wunderlich. “If you get involved in Open Source and take the time to understand the benefits in licensing costs, choice, flexibility, standardized development, collaboration, and time to market, you will see the benefits first hand.”

    IBM uses a research lab and invites healthcare companies and vendors to test applications. Novell sponsors pilot programs for desktops. “Pilots like this will help vendors like Dell, which has a Linux desktop solution,” said Novell’s Bidleman. “It is a huge step forward just to introduce this desktop technology to healthcare organizations.”

    Partnering assures healthcare that the applications it adopts will be supported by credible vendors. It also provides a “spawning ground” for large healthcare organizations to adopt applications—which in turn encourages smaller organizations to do the same. Growing adoption will inspire software providers to deliver Linux/Open Source versions of their products.

    “More and more Open Source applications are being adopted by the market, and at some point using Open Source will be considered “normal” in healthcare,” said IBM’s Scott Handy. “The commercial Open Source vendor space is taking off, which will help with credibility and support issues. There is also the OHF bridge, which allows you to write an application or connection that simply “plugs in” to the bridge, even if the application resides on a legacy system.”

  • Virtualization. Virtualization — the ability to consolidate physical servers by placing logical “instances” of these servers on a single hardware platform — is a very hot trend in healthcare and other industries. “Virtualization provides cost savings and redundancy. You save on hardware, staffing, and administration when you can run multiple instances of an operating system on a single machine,” said Tom Wunderlich. Virtualization is also an easy cost savings justification that can be used with upper management.

    Virtualization with Linux/Open Source can be done on network servers or even on traditional mainframe platforms. For example, multiple instances of Linux/Open Source can be run on an IBM Z Series mainframe — a point not lost on large-scale healthcare organizations. “The mainframe is still being used as a data and transaction repository hub on networks,” said Scott Handy. “We’re seeing people connect mainframes into open platforms with the mainframe hub as a backend.”

A Prescription for Success

A critical mass of Linux applications for healthcare providers is perhaps two years out, but Linux is already available in network infrastructure and several niche areas, and is poised to grow at a slightly greater rate than the overall market.

Organizations that can craft strategies for Linux/Open Source will be ahead in the game—as will companies that move forward with server consolidations and virtualization, which is greatly facilitated by Linux/Open Source. Organizations should be sure to partner with a reputable vendor that can provide extensive support. Initial deployments should be conducted in non-critical “pilots” before large-scale release.

“Linux won’t be putting Microsoft out of business,” said Forrester’s Michael Gould, “But it has crossed the chasm to where it is no longer considered ‘risky.’"

Link to story:  http://www.linux-mag.com/id/3215

 

Funny Linux Commands (with actual output)

OK, so who hasn’t seen this? Nonetheless, it’s still worth revisiting:

Funny Linux command-lines with real output…

% cat “food in cans”
cat: can’t open food in cans

% nice man woman
No manual entry for woman.

% “How would you rate Quayle’s incompetence?
Unmatched “.

% Unmatched “.
Unmatched “.

% [Where is Jimmy Hoffa?
Missing ].

% ^How did the sex change operation go?^
Modifier failed.

% If I had a ( for every $ the Congress spent, what would I have?
Too many (’s.

% make love
Make: Don’t know how to make love. Stop.

% sleep with me
bad character

% got a light?
No match.

% man: why did you get a divorce?
man:: Too many arguments.

% !:say, what is saccharine?
Bad substitute.

% %blow
%blow: No such job.

% \(-
(-: Command not found.

$ PATH=pretending! /usr/ucb/which sense
no sense in pretending!

$ drink matter
matter: cannot create

Great stuff.

 

mobile phone Pc suites

Phone pc suites under linux

1.gnokii

2.gammu

3.wammu(frontend for gammu)

4.gnome phone manager

the only success with four apps for me is gnome phone manager.

but phone manager is short of several faciltites.importing contacts ,calls,files and many more.i always message several groups of my friends .does somebody has an answer for this

 

I FROM CHINAԺŠ^_^

§ßÂÆ∂Â•Ω Ôºå ÊàëÊù•Êù•Ëá≥‰∏≠ÂõΩ  ^_^
 

Getting More Q's answered using IRC

Are you tired of going into a channel on IRC, asking your question, and not getting any responses? Wouldnt it be nice to not have to constantly read every line in a channel just to see how you can help someone else?  If you have answered yest to both of these, then im glad im not alone.

My first thoughts were..Is there an IRC client or plugin that helps with highlighting just questions?  Im just thinking it would be nice to be in a chat room and have questions appear in a different color that way you dont have to continually read everything.  I know some people will say, just use forums, but i was hoping that there might be some kind of merge between IRC / Forum/ Twitter.   This, I think, would help people to focus on questions being asked, and not necessarily have to read all the conversations.

This also might be bigger than just a plugin for an IRC app. It might just be a new way to use IRC. Kind of like mixing Twitter and IRC.  When asking a question in an IRC channel you could use a global syntax like sending replies or direct messages on twitter. (ie. asking a question in IRC channel could be ":q What is IRC?")  It would also be nice to then list current questions that were asked in the channel since you joined. (ie. :lq )  This way you could be notified when a new question is asked, and not have to keep reading everything in the channel.  You could be in a IRC channel and minimize the client, surfing the net....or whatever, and when a questions is asked in the channel you could go read what it is.  I think this would help people get more of there questions answered, because i might know the answer to a question, but if im not reading everything that is going on in the channel at the time, then it would be easily missed.

What is everyones thoughts on this?

 

Bandwidthd Howto

Ive been searching on how to install bandwidthd...and finally found it. It works for me!

Thanks to howto from planetmy:

[root@planetmy]# tar xvfz bandwidthd-2.0.1.tgz
[root@planetmy]# cd bandwidthd
Configure and install the Bandwidthd source:
[root@planetmy]# ./configure && make install

Please make sure you have:
libpcap from http://www.tcpdump.org/
libpng from http://www.libpng.org/
libgd from http://www.boutell.com/gd/

Edit /usr/local/bandwidthd/etc/bandwidthd.conf
to suit your network environment.

Start Bandwidthd
/usr/local/bandwidthd/bandwidthd

Point your Apache Virtual Host to
/usr/local/bandwidthd/htdocs for browse
the bandwidthd graph.
 
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