Home Linux Community Community Blogs

Community Blogs

Idea – A Novice Approach To Linux On The Laptop

Getting a Linux distribution on a laptop can be difficult for the novice user. Because of this we need another approach than installing Linux in a dual boot configuration.

Why not take inspiration from users where they connected a Raspberry Pi to a Motorola Laptop Dock. From this I would say we need a computer on a thumb drive to do something similar.

With USB3 or maybe even with USB2 it should be possible to use the screen, mouse and keyboard on the laptop for the thumb drive computer. Once it is USB connected it would show up as a window in Windows like Virtual Box. Here full screen is an option.

The difference is that it will run full speed on its own hardware. It should even have its own wifi.

So if you have a slow XP computer. You can turn off the internet to Windows for safety and run your attachable Linux device on your laptop.

Here you have a safe way to upgrade your laptop system and an easy way to run Linux on your laptop. Just attach a USB stick.

For more at



How To : Upgrade to Linux Mint 17.1 (Rebecca) from Linux Mint 17 (Qiana)

As we all know, Latest stable version of Linux Mint OS - Linux Mint 17.1, which is based on Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, having a codename Rebecca has been released and is available for download with two desktop environments viz. Cinnamon and Mate. Just like Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr and Linux Mint 17 (Qiana), Linux Mint 17.1 (Rebecca) will be officially supported till 2019. This tutorial will help you in upgrading to Linux Mint 17.1 Rebecca from Linux Mint 17 Qiana.


  • Fixed 30 Memory leaks and improved responsiveness.
  • Much more customizable and smoother
  • Settings: Background and Theme settings re-designed, added Privacy and Notification settings,
  • Nemo: Nemo toolbar re-designed and much configurable
  • Update Manager: Introcudes grouping of packages to prevent partial or incomplete updates
  • Language Settings: Redesigned the UI which shows more information now.
  • Welcome Screen: Redesigned Login windows preferences, with simpler theme selection.
  • Introduces pastebin command.
  • Kernel: Linux Kernel 3.13 with Ubuntu 14.04 package base.
  • Uses Noto font, by deault.

Read more at YourOwnLinux


Developing history of Huawei optical transmission: 20 years of accumulations

Throughout the developing history of Huawei optical transmission, it is actually a process that bandwidth capacity constantly promoting and business efficiency continuous optimizing, while accompanied by a series of new problems and challenges and solutions generated.

With the rapid development of wireless data, home broadband and leased line services, bandwidth demand continuously rise,optical transmission experienced continuous evolution of technical solutions and network architecture (PDH, SDH, MSTP, WDM and OTN) - compared with PDH system, Huawei SDH not only enhanced capacity and but also improved network efficiency and operation and maintenance; with the development of network IP, SDH gradually evolve to MSTP platform; However, for the trunk line and urban core, the lack of capacity gradually highlighted, so the development of WDM is imperative.

In this process, Huawei adhere to customer-centric, and strive to go beyond, self-dependent innovation. From OTN stage initially to 100G, from super 100G to T-SDN commercial use globally, Huawei experienced 20 years of accumulations in optical transport field, from the "precedency" to "excellence."


Wearable Electronics Market - Global Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2020

Wearable Electronics are minute electronics devices worn by the consumer which enable wireless networking and mobile computing. The word “wearable technology” refers to any electronic device or product which can be worn by a person to add computing in his action or work and utilize technology to benefit advanced features and characteristics. Wearable electronics may consist of glasses, jewelry, headgear, belts, arm wear, wrist wear, leg wear, footwear, skin patches, and e-textiles.


In recent years, there has been lots of research and development going in the field of wearable electronics attributed to their popularity and wide acceptance in global market.

Buy full report:


The major application market of wearable electronics include, 


    • 1) Healthcare and Medical- blood pressure monitors, hearing Aids, continuous glucose monitoring, smart glasses and others 
    • 2) Fitness and Wellness- activity monitors, emotional measurement, foot pods and pedometer, head up display, sleep sensors, smart clothing, smart watches, sleep sensors and others
    • 3) Infotainment- head-up display, hand-worm terminals, head-up display, smart clothing, smart glasses and others
    • 4) Military- head-up display, smart clothing, smart glasses and others


North America is the largest market for wearable electronics followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. In the last few years, North America has been witnessing the fastest growth rate; however Asia Pacific region is expected to take over as the fastest growing market in upcoming years.


Some of the major drivers of the industry include increasing demand of consumers towards communication, networking, positioning and recognition technologies in compact and portable forms, developments in material science, augmented reality and chip evolution and low power inter device connectivity (Bluetooth 4.0, infra red and NFC). Some of the key challenges for the industry are thermal consideration, negative effect of radiation on human health, and device protection.


With the growth of sensors, particularly in the health and medical space, the potential uses of wearable computing technologies are quite extensive. Wearable electronics are expected to increase their adoption levels in different sectors such as health and fitness, gaming, fashion, mobile money, education and transportation.


Rising average life expectancy, baby boomers population and larger proportion of patients requiring long term treatment are some of the key drivers in healthcare and medicine segment whereas demands from professional athletes, recreational fitness consumers, and corporate wellness programs are propelling the market of wearable technology in fitness and wellness sector. The ongoing military up gradation programs around the globe such as, the U.S.’s ‘Future Force Warrior (FFW)’, Australia’s ‘Project Wundurra’, Israel’s ‘Integrated Advanced Soldier (IAS)’, and the U.K.’s ‘Future Infantry Soldier Technology’ are expected to increase the overall market share of wearable electronics market in military and defense.    

Some of the key players in the wearable electronics market include Adidas AG, Recon Instruments, Inc., Fibretronic Ltd., Jawbone, Inc., Fitbit, Inc., Nike, Inc. (U.S.), Olympus Corporation, and Weartech s.l, Vuzix Corporation , Google, Inc., Apple, Inc.,By-Wire.Net, Imprint Energy, Inc, Jawbone, Inc., O’neill Wetsuits LIC, Plastic Logic Ltd., Texas Instruments, Inc., Zoog Technologies, Inc., Weartech S.L, Shimmer Research, Inc., Vancive Medical Technologies, Infineon Technologies Ag, Glassup SRL, Eurotech S.P.A, and AT&T, Inc.


Request full TOC:


Key points covered in the report

  • Report segments the market on the basis of types, application, products, technology, etc (as applicable)
  • The report covers geographic segmentation

      • North America
      • Europe
      • Asia
      • RoW
  • The report provides the market size and forecast for the different segments and geographies for the period of 2010 to 2020
  • The report provides company profiles of some of the leading companies operating in the market
  • The report also provides porters five forces analysis of the market. 

Running Oracle XE 11gR2 in Nova-Docker container on OpenStack RDO Juno (CentOS 7)

Docker image arahman/docker-oracle-xe-11g:latest  allows to build Nova-Docker
Container on RDO Juno running Oracle XE instance, which may be accessed remotely via floating IP assigned to nova instance. Several network configuration files require tuning with Nova system  instance-name and floating IP assigned from neutron external pool.Complete article may be viewed here


Difference between a Hard Link and Soft (Symbolic) Link

This tutorial describes the difference between a hard link and soft (symbolic) link within the unix/linux file system. This tutorial includes examples as well as the commands required to configure a link as well as repair a hanging link.


Top Terminal Multiplexer Tools

The phrase 'terminal multiplexer' sounds a bit of a mouthful and a large dollop of jargon. Multiplexing is a method of combining multiple data streams into one stream over a shared medium. This gives us a hint of the function of a terminal multiplexer. It is computer software that can be used to multiplex several video consoles. In English? Well, it allows you to make use of multiple separate terminal sessions inside a single terminal. So one terminal session can act like many sessions.

<A HREF="">Full article</A>


Live DVD for Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer

Initiating minos-one

Ever wanted to try out Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer and Swami? Then you need minos-one download available at


This live DVD is shipped with most popular GNU software including:

  • Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer
  • Swami
  • Mplayer
  • ffmpeg
  • ...

It is a x86_64 build with realtime kernel linux-3.14.25-rt22. System requirements are probably lots of RAM. Me could borrow you with some anoying details but rather deciding to give you a brief howto extend minos-one Live DVD ....


GNU/Linux is providing /dev/shm it is a tmpfs its advantages are all files are provided within RAM. Here comes the magic part. You builded a initrd kernel this initrd fs is provided in RAM as well and remounting root / is done anyway.

To get a full setup with source I would recommend you where you do /usr/share/mkinitramfs/ this is the file launched just before /sbin/init.

Note if you wish to start kernel command line:

linux vmlinuz initrd initrd.img init=/bin/bash

There's a not documented /sbin/init paramater --init which does all magic ie. start init and invoke /etc/init.d

Setup directory structure and base files

First we create some directories to mount our ISO files:

$ cd /mnt
$ mkdir {image,rootfs,rootfs,usrfs,build,cdrom}

Create build.iso file which is large enough to contain and build linux kernel, here we create a 100G file for your builds so make sure to have enough disk space.

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=build.iso bs=512K count=200000
$ vfsnode=`losetup -f`
$ losetup -P $vfsnode build.iso
$ mkfs.ext4 $vfsnode

The created iso is now mounted using loopback device. To know what loopback device just enter:

$ echo $vfsnode

You can either do your own linux from scratch or do:

$ wget -c
$ mount -o loop minos-lxdm.iso /mnt/cdrom

For know we mount the rootfs and usr directory of our live DVD by issueing:

$ cp -rv cdrom/* image
$ mount -o loop image/casper/rootfs.iso rootfs
$ mount -o loop image/casper/usr.iso rootfs/usr
$ mount $vfsnode rootfs/sources

Chroot to the ISO environment

Chroot provides you a nested root environment further we bind devfs to the chroot environment.

$ mount -v --bind /dev rootfs/dev
$ mount -vt devpts devpts rootfs/dev/pts -o gid=5,mode=620
$ mount -vt proc proc rootfs/proc
$ mount -vt sysfs sysfs rootfs/sys
$ mount -vt tmpfs tmpfs rootfs/run
$ chroot /mnt/rootfs /usr/bin/env -i              \
     HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
     PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin     \
     /bin/bash --login

For now your able to build your applications for the iso within chroot environment it is
to use /sources for your build since it's really large and will not be included in the iso.


Download syslinux either with your favourite repository or from and unmount your ISOs when not needed anymore. So you have to logout the chroot environment:

$ exit
$ cd /mnt
$ umount rootfs/{dev/pts,sys,proc,run,dev}
$ umount rootfs/{sources,usr,}

The build your ISO and burn it using cdrecord or wodim:

$ cd image
$ mkisofs -o ../minos-lxdm-new.iso \
   -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/ \
   -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \
$ cd .. && cdrecord -v minos-lxdm-new.iso



Getting Ready for 2015’s Cloud, Let’s Embrace The Advancements

Getting Ready for 2015’s Cloud, Let’s Embrace The Advancements

As we get ready to embrace the New Year, most enterprises are already preparing themselves with new business strategies for 2015. Technology continues to innovate even if there are ups and downs in businesses. Starting with a new year is always the best time for new goals, aligning strategies, re-assessing and an internal-analysis as well for ensuring improvements.

Most organisations that rely over IT would already know about the cloud models (IaaS, SaaS and PaaS) and have researched on the major services providers. Where most would be looking forward to moving completely to gain success and manage the IaaS layer.

There will be more choices in the cloud for organizations than ever before. The new year would see a shift towards the multi-cloud world where one would advantage of cloud services from different services providers depending upon the workloads. Cloud is not only going to burst into torrent of services that will be delivered at a cheaper cost but would also see an easy in usage. Though this may be a new concept for some ventures, but many have already adopted it where it’s a mix of private and public clouds to suffice IT needs within the businesses. Need for cloud technology is felt by the organizations as it gives a strong boost to analytics and offers agile and flexible environment. “By giving a new approach to IT, it allows the individuals or ventures to select a method to acquire or deliver IT services to the clients with less reliability on restraints of the outdated software and hardware licensing models”, according to David Cearley, vice president and Gartner Fellow.

In addition to countless choices, the emphasis on what drives good value will be the major theme for 2015. Value isn’t specifically referred to cost but the time and energy that is spent on handling and scaling the corporate environment. This will facilitate providers being more skeptical, strengthening the need for a trusted partner whether you depend on that partner for managing public or private cloud, program the DevOps or maintain tabs on your apps like Google Apps for Work. Instead of recruiting resources to manage the tools and technologies and maximizing the cost for them, it will be eminent for the companies to focus on IT management and decide on their partner to generate more value.

As per the global survey by Equinix, around 38 percent of companies plan to install between 3-5 cloud services over next year along with 11 percent planning on more than 10 services. While the report published by the Cloud Industry Forum (CIF) predicted that UK’s cloud penetration will spike up to 90 percent in 2015 introducing new challenges for firms to manage the significant data inflow. Currently, an approximate of 78 percent of UK businesses are using cloud services as per the CIF figures. More users will make a fresh start by moving their server workloads to cloud, where some would upgrade to primary level while others will try to enhance their IT strategy, commented Alex Hilton, the CIF’s chief executive.

Switching over to the cloud environment doesn’t mean simply shifting everything into another company’s container but it’s a template shift in the way you and your company need to work. Since there has been a great change in the system administration, the next step in cloud evolution is the automation of processes that should further make your life easier. But while selecting a cloud service provider you should find out whether it offers all the essentials including good management and automation tools/skills. Elasticity plays a vital role in any venture and one knows that the capability of scaling up and down, decreases the cost when referring to the balance sheet at the end of the year.

Though we are mentioning all the facts and information here, it completely depends upon you, what type of cloud platform to choose – public, private or hybrid. Moving to cloud provides greater agility, reduces complexity, cuts down on overall cost and allows shifting from capital-intensive to operational cost models. The coming year 2015, is going to be a make or break year for many enterprises who take an initiative step towards cloud. So, utilize your holidays to relax and enjoy as the real tough technology wars are to start from next January. Best luck!


12 of the Best Free Git Books

Git is the most widely used version control system, in part because of the popularity of GitHub, a web-based Git repository hosting service, which offers all of the distributed revision control and source code management) functionality of Git as well as adding its own features.

The books featured in this article are all available for free, and many of them are released under an open source license. Some of the text are designed for beginners, others help developers get to grip with the somewhat ugly internals of Git. So get reading, learning and sharing code.

<A HREF="">Read more</A>


Vim Tutorial for Beginners

Modifying the contents of a file within the Unix/Linux command line environment may be difficult for any Linux user, especially if they are new to the operating system. There are many different ways to modify the contents of a file within the UNIX command line, one method in particular is with the Vim command line text editor. Vim is a powerful text based application that can be used to create, modify or save text based files. The following tutorial will introduce you to the basic functionality of vim as well as how to utilize some of its most powerful features.

This introductory tutorial will teach you the basic functionality of vim as well as how to utilize some of its most powerful features.


Page 3 of 150

Upcoming Linux Foundation Courses

  1. LFD312 Developing Applications For Linux
    16 Feb » 20 Feb - Atlanta - GA
  2. LFD331 Developing Linux Device Drivers
    16 Feb » 20 Feb - San Jose - CA
  3. LFS220 Linux System Administration
    16 Feb » 19 Feb - Virtual

View All Upcoming Courses

Who we are ?

The Linux Foundation is a non-profit consortium dedicated to the growth of Linux.

More About the foundation...

Frequent Questions

Join / Linux Training / Board