Home Linux Community Community Blogs

Community Blogs

Cloud Computing Security and Privacy: A Detailed Technical Analysis

Cloud computing is recognized as the most discussed topic in the IT industry while some people say it’s a game-changing technology. It mostly focuses on maximizing the efficiency of shared computing resources. It has completely changed the way of application usage. Application were running on personal computers before but cloud has made them available over Internet along with storage capacities and excellent computing power. Centralized data processing tasks, storages and access are the major features of cloud based infrastructure. While we have many potential benefits using cloud computing, we must take strong measures to protect the privacy and security. One must take serious considerations before moving their information to the cloud.


Security is the fact that implementation team should think first and act accordingly, particularly in cloud computing systems. These security goals are usually addressed for some specific event in the framework of the requirement definition and are part of the non-functional requirements to be met by the cloud vendor as well as by the cloud infrastrastructure itself. While planning for the security, three most important protection goals come in mind – confidentiality, integrity, authenticity.  Our practices must evolve around these three facts while the implementation of security resources to our cloud.


Privacy is also an important matter. If a client has the ability to login from any location to access data and applications, privacy compromising can be very much possible . Cloud computing companies must have clear roadmap to protect client privacy. There can be various ways to accomplish this. One way is to use strong authentication techniques such as complex usernames and passwords. Another is to implement an authorization format -- each user can access only their respective data and limited to that only.

Steps to address risks and challenges:


  • We must take care of Vendor’s transparency and distinct service level agreement

  • We must check if our possible vendor has adequate practices for privacy and confidentiality of personal, sensitive, or regulated data and information

  • Our hosting provider is legally and regulatory compliance

  • The possible hosting provider follows standard cyber security policies and support for incident forensics

  • If our hosting provider has the efficient records preservation, access, and management

  • Standard service availability and reliability


If we must get satisfactory answers for above questions in order to sign up for any cloud services. This will help us to make our cloud experience more result oriented. We will be successfully able to meet our goals that we set for cloud.


For more details:


5 Awesome Open Source Backup Software For Linux and Unix-like Systems

good backup plan is essential in order to have the ability to recover from, Human errors, RAID or disk failure, File system corruption, Data center destruction and more. In this post I’m going to list amazingly awesome open source Backup software for you.

Read more 


Yarock 1.0 Music Player Released with Rebranded Interface, New Icon Theme and Bug Fixes

Yarock is a Qt-based music player with a compact and simple interface, with support for music collections using SQLite, album covers, smart playlists, Internet radio, integration.


Read more


Open Source cloud services avoid lock-in

Univention's managing director Peter Ganten takes the new Active Directory Service by Amazon Web Services, which was launched last month, as an opportunity to talk about the problems companies can have by using big cloud service providers and continues with the advantages of using open source technology for the cloud which are: no vendor lock-ins, larger number of available software, high flexibility to change providers etc.

The article can be found at:


Forlinx industrial OK335xD single board computer now is launched

Forlinx, an embedded systems design and manufacturing company based in Hebei province in China, has announced OK335xD industrial single board computer powered by Texas Instruments Sitara AM335X processor, and which appears to be a high-end boards  more ports. Potential applications include communication devices, medical equipment, automotive computers, control panels, data acquisition devices, industrial control, industrial automation equipment, and more.

Forlinx_OK335xDOK335xD single board computer is composed of a CPU module (FET335xD), and a baseboard simply called “OK335xD Base Board”.

Listed specifications for FET335xD computer-on-module:

  • SoC – Texas Instruments Sitara AM3354 Cortex A8 processor @ 800MHz with PowerVR SGX530 GPU
  • System Memory – 512MB DDR3
  • Storage – 256MB SLC NAND Flash
  • Interfaces available via CoM connector:
    • 1x USB 2.0 Host; 1x USB2.0 OTG
    • Ethernet Dual Gigabit Ethernet
    • 3x MMC
    • 3x I2C, 2x SPI, 6x UART / IrDA
    • Various GPIO pins
    • 8x ADC
    • 2x CAN
    • LCD Interface
  • Misc – Watchdog (SP706SEN)
  • Power Supply – 5V; PMU – TPS65217C
  • Dimension – 46mm x 70mm
  • Temperature Range – -40℃~+85℃ (Operating)

Features listed for OK335xD baseboard:

  • Processor/Memory/Storage – Via FET335xD CoM
  • External Storage – 1x SD/SDHC card slot up to 32GB
  • Display
    • LCD interface with optional 4.3″, 5″, 7″, 8″, 10.4″ resistive or capacitive displays with various resolutions (480×272, 800×480, 800×600).
    • VGA is supported via an optional LCD to VGA board
  • Audio – 1x headphone jack, 1x MIC jack, 1x Line IN
  • Connectivity – 1x Gigabit Ethernet, connector for external SDIO Wi-Fi module
  • USB – 4x USB 2.0 host ports, 1x micro USB device port
  • Serial Ports
    • 3x Serial Port (2x RS232, 1x TTL)
    • 1x RS485 (Horizontal connectors with isolation protection)
    • 1x CAN (Horizontal connectors with isolation protection)
  • Other Expansion Headers
    • “BUS” header with 12-Bit address bus, 16-bit data bus
    • “I2C” header with 2x I2C
    • “SPI” header with 1x SPI,  1x PWM?
    • “AD” header with 8x ADC (4 for resistive touching, and 4 for user),
  • Debugging – JTAG connector
  • Misc – 4x LED, 6x user keys, 1x reset switch, 1x power switch, 1x boot switch (SD or NAND boot), on-board RTC
  • Power Supply – 5V
  • Power Consumption – 1.35W in standalone mode; 3.5 W to 5W with 7″ LCD in various scenario.
  • Dimensions – 190 x 130 mm
  • Temperature Range – -40℃~+85℃ (Operating), except the RTC chip.

Forlinx provides BSPs for Android 4.2,  Linux 3.2, and WinCE 6.0 / 7.0 with several drivers for each operating systems,and documentation and source code are available. You can find a little more information and/or contact the company for details on



The Rich Landscape of Linux Education Software

If you were to ask a die-hard Windows-based PC user, then you’d probably hear that Linux is a thing of the past, irrelevant, and nothing to dig into. In reality, though, the open source network is alive and well and provides a number of opportunities, programs, and advantages when it comes to education software.

There are a number of schools that are beginning to switch over from their current systems and formats in favor of Linux and one of the key reasons has to do with cost. Due to the open source nature of the Linux operating system and the software that is developed to support it, it is, for the most part free.

Of course, there are certain applications that will cost money, or a donation, but that all depends on the particular nature of the application or software program. The free nature of the open source Linux operating system, though, should be appealing to any number of schools and school districts across the country. With Windows or Max licensing fees that can erode just about any budget, just the core nature of Linux as an operating system would be a welcome change.


Why is Linux a Good Idea for Educational Programs?

One of the key reasons why Linux based educational programs would be a powerful concept for schools is the open source format of the programs themselves. One thing that separates Linux from other operating systems and programming platforms is that users can download, modify, and then redistribute the programs themselves. This would make them easily modifiable for each school so that the programs suit their particular needs and curriculum without having to worry about copyright infringement, licensing, or other issues commonly associated with the more ‘popular’ platforms.

Also, open source software programs are generally programmed by people who use it. This means that where many school systems have to sift through certain programs to try and find what may work well for them, with Linux educational software programs, this isn’t the same process.

Schools would be able to seek out and choose from a wide range of programs that were likely coded by another school system or teacher with a specific goal in mind. Then the school can download the program, try it, and determine if it is something that would work for their particular needs and if not, it can be uninstalled with a few simple clicks of the mouse.

The same cannot be stated when it comes to Mac or Windows based programs. These would have to be purchased and often school districts would be guided to ‘buy in bulk,’ meaning that they would be encouraged to ‘save money’ by purchasing orders that would fill all of the available computers within their district. With Linux, teachers, administrators, and even students can take the program for a test run, in a manner of speaking, before determining whether it might be something that could suit their educational needs.


What about the Programs that Are Available?

With regard to the various educational programs that are available for Linux, there are a number of different websites that are devoted entirely to promoting educational software for Linux based systems. The KDE Education Project,, and Kid’s Software for Linux are just a few of the websites that are devoted to promoting education software resources for children of all ages.

There are math tutoring programs and games that teach children the fundamentals, and even the more advanced concepts of math. You can find flashcard style programs that make it easier to learn and retain lessons, and programs that teach about history, typing, English, and a host of other skills and lessons that are commonly used in most school systems.


The Private and Business Sector Problem for Linux

One of the major hurdles that Linux has had for many years within the public eye has been that, at least in many business applications, there has been little traction for the operating system or the software programs, at least in a commercially viable sense. Windows, IBM, and Mac have invested considerable amounts of time, money, and other resources to make themselves more appealing to the average business computer user and while there are many private Linux users, keeping up with the changing technology has meant these users would have to wait for other developers to create complementary programs.


The same is not true for education software. There have been a wide array of individuals as well as school professionals, including teachers, who have been using Linux and the programs that they have developed are rich in resources and provide a wealth of opportunities for students of many age ranges.

The best aspect about Linux educational software programs is that they don’t require licensing and they can be modified. In this modern age of education, that can be an indispensable asset.


How to Fix SSLv3 Vulnerability (POODLE) in Apache and NGINX on CentOS

POODLE (CVE-2014-3566) is an security vulnerability in SSLv3 discovered by Google in September. POODLE stands for Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption. All the websites supporting SSLv3 is vulnerable to POODLE, even if it also supports more recent versions of TLS. Using POODLE a hacker run Man-in-the-middle attacks attacks in your network stream and can steal secure HTTP cookies.

Read complete article here to check how to fix this issue on Apach2(HTTPD)/NGINX Servers on CentOS/RHEL Systems.


Smart Watches Market - Latest Technology Research Report and Industry Analysis upto 2020

The global smart watches market is expected to show a remarkable growth rate by coming years. One of the major factors contributing the growth of the global smart watches market is the entrance of big vendors in the market. The market has also witnessing an increase in R&D spending. The global leading players such as Sony, Samsung, Pebble, and Maritime have increased their R&D investments for smart watches. For that, they are entering into partnerships with value-added resellers and suppliers and investing in R&D activities. These increasing R&D investments are helping players to introduce new products with better integration ability and accuracy. This will help with the reduction in smart watch prices and lead to an increase in their adoption among consumers.

Read More Info @

Although the various driving factors, the global smart watches market is retraining due to the lack of proper technology standards. In addition, this is a new and emerging technology and thus technology standards are not clearly defined. The wearable computing device has failed because of the bulkiness, ugly look, battery issues and weak functionality. However, after the launch of number of new smart watches, consumer perceptions have changed. Nowadays, smart watches have become an important accessory to smartphones and an independent communication device. In future, smart watches will have a screen which potentially run software and allows to serve a robust extension to smartphone operating systems and apps.

The global smart watches market is segmented into two major categories, on the basis of application into general consumers, sports and healthcare and others. The market is also segmented on the basis of product characteristics into companion devices and standalone smart watches.

The market is driven by factors such as the rapidly growing consumer electronics goods industry and its distinctive features. The rapid technological advancements and changing consumer preferences will also act as drivers for the global smart watches market. Other factors fuelling the growth of the global smart watch market are the growing adoption of wireless technologies and softwares. Also the continuous adoption of mobile processor technologies is driving the demand for this market.




Data-protector Installation on VMware on Linux Desktops


Data is one of the most crucial elements for security and protection. Tech market giants make investments of millions. Backup/Data Protection is a key area when we talk about data retention and data recovery. We have big giants involved who have made this possible by developing a variety of data-protection tools. These data-protection techniques have been utilised in both physical and virtual environments.


These backup techniques are basically of two types :


1. Image Backup

2. Client Backup


The earliest kind of backup configurations were client backups. Traditional backup methods work like this by storing redundant data over and over again. Because of this, client backup installation had various performance degradation issues. The below issues were rectified by a technique called Image Backups. In this technique there was improvisation in data protection by the storage of only the changed storage block, instead of everything as in the  client backup technique. Tremendous improvement in the performance of the VMS was recorded by using image backup technique. There was also less congestion in the network bandwidth.


In Virtual Environments the Major Tools used for Image Backup Technique are as stated below


  • VMware Vsphere Data protector

  • IBM Tivoli Manager

  • Avamar Proxy Server


Introduction to  VMware Vsphere DataProtector (VDP):


  • Robust ,Simple to deploy disk-based backup and recovery technique.

  • It enables centralised and efficient management of backup jobs while storing backups in deduplicated storage locations.

  • VMware vSphere Web Client interface is used to select, schedule, configure, and manage backups and recoveries of virtual machines.

  • The Vsphere data protector creates a snapshot quiesced snapshot of the virtual machine and deduplication is performed with every backup operation.

  • It uses Change Block Tracking (CBT) technique which is Vmkernel function, keeping a track of storage blocks of virtual machines as they change over time. VMkernel  keeps a track of block changes on virtual machines, this enhances the backup process for applications.

  • It uses VMware storage API’s used for Data Protection as well enables centralized backup of a VM machine without causing any disruption.

  • The VDP Appliance is a purpose built virtual appliance for vSphere data protection.



Installation of Vsphere Data Protector:


Software Requiremnets:

VDP 5.5 requires the following software:

  • VMware vCenter Server: Version 5.1 or later

  1. vCenter Server Linux or Windows.

NOTE: Backing up more than 2 TB VMs on Windows operating systems is not supported. This limitation does not exist on Linux operating systems.

  1. Web browsers must be enabled with Adobe Flash Player 11.3 or higher to access the vSphere Web. Client and VDP functionality


  • VMware ESX/ESXi (the following versions are supported)

  1. ESX/ESXi 4.0, 4.1,ESXi 5.0, ESXi 5.1, ESXi 5.5

Pre-Installation Configurations:

  • “DNS Configuration”

  • “NTP Configuration”

  • “User Account Configuration”

  • “vSphere Data Protection Best Practices”


Installation of Vsphere Data Protector:


The installation is basically completed in two steps :-

  • “Deploy the OVF Template”

  • “Configuring the VDP Appliance System Settings”


Deploy the OVF Template:-



1. From a web browser, access the vSphere Web Client.

2. Log in with administrative privileges.

3. Select vCenter > Datacenters.

4. On the Objects tab, click Actions > Deploy OVF Template.

5. If prompted, allow and install the VMware Client Integration Plug-in.

6. Select the source where the VDP Appliance is located. By default the File name dialog is set to OVF

Packages (*.ovf). From the drop-down box to the right of File name, select OVA Packages (*.ova).

7. Navigate to the location of the VDP Appliance .ova file. Confirm that you select the appropriate file for

the datastore. Click Open.

8. After the VDP Appliance .ova file is selected, click Next.

9. Review the template details and click Next.

10. On the Accept EULAs screen, read the license agreement, click Accept, and then click Next.

11. On the Select name and folder screen, enter the name for the VDP Appliance (this must match the entry configured on the DNS Server) and click on the folder or datacenter in which you want it deployed. The VDP Appliance Name should not be changed after installation. Click Next.

12. On the Select a resource screen, select the host for the VDP Appliance and click Next.

13. On the

Select Storage screen, select the virtual disk format and select the location of the storage for the VDP Appliance. Click Next.

14. On the Setup networks screen, select the Destination Network for the VDP Appliance and click Next.

15. In the Customize template screen, specify the Default Gateway, DNS, Network 1 IP Address, and

Network 1 Netmask. Confirm that the IP addresses are correct and match the entry in the DNS Server.

Setting incorrect IP addresses in this dialog box will require the .ova to be redeployed. Click Next.

NOTE: The VDP Appliance does not support DHCP; a static IP address is required.

16. On the Ready to complete screen, confirm that all of the deployment options are correct. Check Power on after deployment and click Finish.

vCenter deploys the VDP Appliance and boots into the install mode. You can monitor Recent Tasks to determine when the deployment is complete.


Configuring the VDP Appliance System Settings:


Note: That the OVF template has been deployed



1. From a web browser, access the vSphere Web Client.

2. Log in with administrative privileges.

3. Select vCenter Home > vCenter > VMs and Templates. Expand the vCenter tree and select the VDP


4. Open a console session into the VDP Appliance by right-clicking the VDP Appliance and select Open

Console.In the console, the URL and the steps required to configure the VDP display.

5. Enter the required information in the console.

6. Open a web browser and type:


The VDP Welcome screen appears.

7. Click Next.

8. The Network settings dialog box appears by default. Specify (or confirm) the following network and

server information for your VDP Appliance:

a IPv4 Static address

b Netmask

c Gateway

d Primary DNS

e Secondary DNS

f Hostname

g Domain

9 Click Next.

10 The Time Zone dialog box appears. Select the appropriate time zone for your VDP Appliance, and click Next.

11 The VDP credentials dialog box displays. For VDP credentials, type in the VDP Appliance password, and then verify the password by retyping it. This will be the universal configuration password. Specify a password that contains the following:

Nine characters

At least one upper case letter

At least one lower case letter

At least one number

No special characters

12. Click Next.

13. The vCenter registration dialog box appears. Specify the following:

a vCenter username—If the user belongs to a domain account then it should be entered in the format


CAUTION If an SSO admin user is specified as the vCenter username in the format <username@vsphere.local>;,

tasks related to VDP operations do not appear in the vCenter Recent Tasks pane of the vSphere Web Client.

For tasks to appear in the Recent Tasks pane, specify the SSO admin user in the format


b vCenter password

c vCenter hostname (IP address or FQDN)

d vCenter port

e If disabled, click the Use vCenter for SSO authentication check box for SSO authentication.

NOTE: Leave the Use vCenter for SSO authentication check box enabled if your vCenter has SSO embedded in the vCenter server appliance.

14. Click Test connection.


NOTE: If on the vCenter registration page of the wizard you receive the message “Specified user either is not a dedicated VDP user or does not have sufficient vCenter privileges to administer VDP.”

If you follow the steps then your installation of Vsphere Data Protector should go without a hitch.



CherryTree Review: The Rich Tree Notes Application

CherryTree is a notes-taking application which organizes your notes into a hierarchical tree, has support for text formatting, and is written in GTK2/Python. Lately this application has got a lot of attention due to rich features and frequent updates. It also comes by default in distributions such as MakuluLinux MATE Edition.


First let me start by talking a bit about the way CherryTree organizes its notes. First of all, the notes are kept in a tree-like hierarchy in the left panel on the main window. Here, you can set so-called “nodes” and “sub-nodes” to create and archive your notes. Each node has a few configurable properties. For example, for each node you can change its name, or you can select its type: Rich Text, plain text or automatic syntax highlighting. The syntax highlighting feature has support for many programming languages. Additionally, you can use tags for each note or make a node read-only, so it can’t be modified.


Full article


Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer 0.4.2

Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer 0.4.2-12

Comes with many improvements, so far many memory leaks are fixed further it runs mostly stable. Caution GNU/Linux may hang up after a short while.

Download Latest


Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer is configurable by preferences dialog. It has autosave functionality

  • save or open Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer XML files with XPath support
  • add or remove audio engines with adjustable audio channels and pads
  • link channels with property dialog output panel, mixer, drum and matrix sequencer, soft synth and soundfont2 player
  • piano roll with basic notation editing supporting copy & paste
  • live adjustable BPM
  • LADSPA support (certain plugins may crash application)
  • live export to WAV

Updated API Reference

The API reference manual was just updated in front of release 0.4.2. Allthough the other documentation wasn't it can even help you get an understanding of how `ags` works.

Visit API reference manual.

Configuration options

Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer safes its configuration in:


Advanced Gtk+ Sequencer - Screenshot

Page 7 of 150

Upcoming Linux Foundation Courses

  1. LFD312 Developing Applications For Linux
    16 Feb » 20 Feb - Atlanta - GA
  2. LFD331 Developing Linux Device Drivers
    16 Feb » 20 Feb - San Jose - CA
  3. LFS220 Linux System Administration
    16 Feb » 19 Feb - Virtual

View All Upcoming Courses

Who we are ?

The Linux Foundation is a non-profit consortium dedicated to the growth of Linux.

More About the foundation...

Frequent Questions

Join / Linux Training / Board