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error occurred when making linux kernel 3.12

Link to this post 13 Nov 13

I want to make the latest kernel release.
and when i run the "make config" command,
an error occurred, following is the gcc log:
In file included from /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/bits/posix1_lim.h:157:0,
from /usr/include/limits.h:145,
from /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include-fixed/limits.h:169,
from /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include-fixed/syslimits.h:7,
from /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/4.7/include-fixed/limits.h:34,
from scripts/basic/fixdep.c:114:
/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/bits/local_lim.h:39:26: 致命错误: linux/limits.h:没有那个文件或目录
make[1]: *** [scripts/basic/fixdep] 错误 1
make: *** [scripts_basic] 错误 2

the log contains Chinese characters, because my local language is zh_cn, the infomation is can't find linux/limits.h, i just want to know what causes this error.
anyone can give me some help, i would appreciate that

my distribution is:
Ubuntu 12.10

my kernel info:
Linux zgy-vm 3.5.0-17-generic #28-Ubuntu SMP Tue Oct 9 19:31:23 UTC 2012 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

my gcc info:
gcc (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.7.2-2ubuntu1) 4.7.2

Link to this post 14 Nov 13

thanks very much, but my purpose is to create a boot disk that only contains linux kernel without any software.
can you give me some advise? thanks again

Link to this post 14 Nov 13

Are you aware that the Kernel alone is pretty useless? If you boot just the Kernel it will look for "init", which is not there and just sit there doing nothing.

For want of a better explanation the Kernel is the "core" and it is the surrounding apps that do things. That is why it is often referred to as GNU/Linux. It is the GNU part that does stuff.

You might care to look at "Linux from Scratch"

Link to this post 14 Nov 13

oh, i didn't recognize that.thanks to remind me.
but i really don't care.
i just want to research kernel, and want to know how kernel runs.
i have used a couple of linux distributions, but i still have little knowledge of kernel.
so i want to compile a kernel, and run it on my virtual box, to get more knowledge about kernel.

Link to this post 14 Nov 13

If you want to learn the kernel you should download the kernel source and build it from scratch.
Also see if this series of articles may be of help in understanding the kernel:

It is mentioned in the above articles but you can download the kernel source code here:

Incidently, the kernel at its simplest is just an interface between the hardware and the software- basically useless on its own.

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