Hope you got most valuable suggestions from already other users.
But C/C++ apart, if you want to build everyday applications in a Linux system (I mean apps. here are the user-space apps.),
then my suggestion is learn PHP and use PHP. It is best simple extremely quick and get you job done immediately.
PHP is not suited for long time running apps. for example daemons. So if you have a large app. if it is daemon, again you need use C/C++ for that purpose. PHP is a scripting language but 200-times better than bash programs.
Any CLI based user-space apps you can use C/C++ or Java or PHP or PERL and so on.
So in this context PHP can be used.
Also second advantage is that with the same PHP you can even write web-apps, dynamic HTML pages and so on.
So it is extremely versatile !