Instead of cloning the entire harddrive, you could clone a particular partition (lets say /dev/sda1) to a disk image by running
sudo dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/path/to/file.img
If you're unsure about the name the kernel has given the partition you wish to clone, you can check the output of fdisk:
sudo fdisk -l
After creating an image of a partition as described above, you can then create a mount point for it by running e.g.
sudo mkdir /mnt/image
You can then mount the image to the dedicated location by running the following command:
sudo mount -o loop /path/to/file.img /mnt/image
If you cloned the entire harddrive (e.g. you used /dev/sda instead of /dev/sda1), I'm not sure how you would go about mounting the partitions directly inside Linux, since the mount command above only works when you clone a filesystem, not an entire disk. One way to verify that a full harddisk image works could be to load the disk image in a virtual machine, e.g. VirtualBox or QEMU.