DocBook Install mini-HOWTO

Robert B Easter

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Revision History
Revision v1.8 2002-02-04 Revised by: rbe

DocBook-Install-mini-HOWTO is a detailed practical guide for novices to quickly getting DocBook installed and processing SGML files into HTML, PS, and PDF files on a GNU/Linux system - other systems may be similar. Since setup of DocBook requires files from several separately distributed packages, it can be confusing for beginners.

1. Introduction

1.1. Information About this Document

The lastest version of this mini-HOWTO can be found at:

See the "Legal" section in the appendix for copyright, licenses, and disclaimer information pertaining to this document.

1.2. What is DocBook

DocBook is a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Document Type Definition (DTD) that defines a set of textual document markup tags that work much like the familiar HTML language used on the web.

DocBook is intended for the authoring of books and articles. As such, it provides tags specifically designed to describe books and articles. For instance, the <book> and <article> DocBook tags are used to create books and articles. Within these documents, the <chapter>, <sect1>, and <para> tags are used. DocBook SGML files are stored in text files with a sgml or gml suffix.

When processed, a single DocBook SGML file can output html, pdf, ps, txt and other formats for both online and printed publication. The processing is governed by stylesheets that can automatically generate a table of contents, page numbering, chapter & section numbering, and other features.

DocBook is also designed for authoring unix man pages by writing <refentry> documents. If you don't know what a man page is, try the command man man on your terminal.

1.3. Brief Overview

Here are brief descriptions of the packages we will work with in the next sections:

OpenJade. OpenJade is an implementation of the ISO/IEC 10179:1996 international standard Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL). OpenJade executes the DSSSL language to process SGML and XML input files. In particular, it uses the Modular DocBook Stylesheets dsl code to process DocBook SGML/XML files into other formats such as html, tex, rtf, txt and others. OpenJade is the essential engine for converting a DocBook file into other formats. The TeX output format is used mostly as an intermediate format to obtain dvi, pdf, and ps via TeX macros and dvi converters.

DocBook SGML DTD. The DocBook Document Type Definition (DTD) files are SGML files that define the DocBook language. It defines the valid tag set and rules of their use. OpenJade requires access to the DTD files for every document type that it parses.

ISO8879 ENTITY SGML. Entities define how to represent special characters that have either no keyboard key or have special meaning in SGML. Examples familiar from HTML include "&amp;"='&', "&gt;"='>', and "&lt;"='<'.

DocBook DSSSL (Modular DocBook Stylesheets). The DSSSL files (dsl suffix) for a particular DTD, in this case DocBook, specify how to convert DocBook into html, rtf, tex etc. A dsl file is input to openjade along with your DocBook sgml file and tells openjade how to transform/style your document into another file format. The dsl for online (html) formats is often different than for print (dvi, pdf, ps) formats.

SGMLtools-Lite. SGMLtools-Lite is a frontend wrapper for running openjade and the TeX macros jadetex and pdfjadetex, macros included with OpenJade. Converting a DocBook file to ps or pdf is a two or three-step process. OpenJade outputs a tex file which is the input of jadetex to produce a dvi file, and pdfjadetex to produce a pdf. A ps file is obtained by passing the dvi file through dvips. The sgmltools script provides a single command to perform these tasks.

HTMLdoc. HTMLdoc is a free program for converting html files into a pdf or ps file.

SGMLSpm and docbook2X. Together, these two are used to generate man pages. SGMLSpm is a perl5 module library for processing parsed output from onsgmls, a program included with OpenJade. SGMLSpm includes an application called sgmlspl to use the SGMLSpm library. Sgmlspl requires "spec files", which are available from various other sources on the Internet, for each type of document transformation to be performed. DocBook2X is a package that provides the spec files for transforming DocBook files into man pages.

2. Download the Packages

In this section, we will locate and download the software on the Internet.

2.1. OpenJade

OpenJade is an actively maintained open-source software project based on the Jade package by James Clark. Download the lastest stable release at:

OpenJade also includes the OpenSP package and the TeX macros, jadetex and pdfjadetex for converting files to dvi and pdf. The following programs are provided by this package:

  • openjade

  • onsgmls

  • osgmlnorm

  • ospam

  • ospent

  • osx

To use jadetex and pdfjadetex for making dvi, ps, and pdf, you must have a working TeX (tex) installation. If you do not have TeX, check with your Linux distribution for a binary package that can be downloaded and installed. Otherwise, you can download the teTeX distribution of TeX from:

2.2. DocBook SGML DTD

The DocBook DTD for SGML and XML are maintained by a technical committee at Oasis-Open.ORG. Download the current version (and any old versions you might need) of DocBook SGML at:


The entities define representations for special or untypeable symbols or characters, including mathematical symbols, and the entities that you may be familiar with from HTML. These entity files need to be installed for a proper configuration. can simply be unzipped into the directory where the DocBook DTD is unzipped without requiring anything else but the files in isoENT-tar.gz are also needed. Again, the files in isoENT-tar.gz are to be unzipped into the DocBook DTD directory (see next section on installing for details), but the filenames end with ".ent" suffix. These will need to be renamed to a ".gml" ending. You can do this manually, or you can download and use the file below, made by this author, which contains the files of both and isoENT-tar.gz:

2.4. DocBook DSSSL

Norman Walsh's Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL) files for the DocBook DTD (SGML/XML) are maintained at the DocBook Open Repository at SourceForge. These files, also known as the Modular DocBook Stylesheets, tell openjade what to do when converting your DocBook SGML file into other formats. A dsl file specifies things such as the mappings from one DTD's tags to another DTD's tags and other programmatic conversions, programmed in the DSSSL language. The DSSSL language is decomposed into a group of different languages, but running through it all is the Core Expression Language which is based on Scheme.

The DocBook DSSSL package and documentation can be downloaded from the DocBook DSSSL Stylesheets Project

The Linux Documentation Project has a stylesheet customization file that turns on some nice style features. It can be downloaded at:

2.5. SGMLtools-Lite

SGMLtools-Lite is a frontend for openjade, jadetex, pdfjadex, dvips, and other programs. It provides a single command for generating all the formats possible with these tools. The lastest release can be downloaded at:

This package is optional, but does make things easier sometimes.

2.6. HTMLdoc

HTMLdoc is a free program for converting websites into Portable Document Format (pdf) or PostScript (ps). For pdf, it creates a tree of bookmarks that make navigation easy. Both htmldoc and pdfjadetex output pdf files, but in slightly different formats. Try both and see which turns out best for a particular docbook file. See quick links below for download site.

You can download the lastest version of HTMLdoc from Easy Software Products' ftp site.

2.7. DocBook2X

DocBook2X requires perl5 and the perl module, available at the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN). provides libraries and a program called sgmlspl which translates DocBook files into other formats by using specification files. The specification files are perl files that provide the logic for the translation to a particular format.

3. Install the Packages

3.1. Before You Install

The following sections suggest how you might install the downloaded packages to setup your DocBook SGML environment. The examples may make reference to old versions of the packages but you should adapt the examples and use the most recent versions instead.

For the most up-to-date, authoritative information, always read the documentation that comes with a package you are installing. Often, you will find a README and a INSTALL file after you unpack an archive.

The detailed instructions below may not work exactly as shown since packages are changing all the time. However, the instructions should still give you a general idea of the procedure to get DocBook SGML working.

3.2. Install OpenJade

3.2.1. openjade

Here is what to do, but remember to read the files that come with OpenJade to see if there are any things you want to do special for your platform:

               cd /usr/local
                tar -xvzf ~/openjade-1.3.tar.gz
                cd openjade-1.3
                ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/openjade-1.3
                make install

                # Once installed, the objects etc. can be deleted.
                make clean
The installation puts libraries in /usr/local/openjade-1.3/lib, so you might like to add it to /etc/ and run ldconfig. Add /usr/local/openjade-1.3/bin to your $PATH.

You might be wondering why I dump the openjade source directly into /usr/local. The author experienced some issues with openjade's installation. However, with newer releases of OpenJade, you might try a standard (/usr/local/src) location for the openjade source package with some other prefix install location, and see how it goes.

3.2.2. jadetex & pdfjadetex

As mentioned, jadetex and pdfjadetex are TeX macros that are packaged with OpenJade. They can be found in /usr/local/openjade-3.1/dsssl. A handy guide to installing these macros was prepared by Frank Atanassow Christoph and can be found at:

The following is based on the instructions in install.pdf: Create hugelatex (if needed)

The jadetex and pdfjadetex tex macros require more memory than a regular run of tex. The default tex memory limit configuration is often too limited. The tex configuration file, texmf.cnf, can be edited and variables which limit tex's memory use can be increased. But rather than just editing the texmf.cnf file to allow tex in all instances to have more memory, a custom tex context can be created, called hugelatex. If hugelatex is already configured on your system, you can skip this subsection (which hugelatex).

Verify that a working TeX is installed and find its directory:

               bash$ which tex
                bash$ kpsewhich -expand-var='$TEXMFMAIN'

Using which should find the location of the tex program. If its not found, then you might need to install teTeX then return here. kpsewhich is a utility that comes with teTeX and finds the main tex directory if all goes well.

Now that the texmf directory is known, installation can begin:

               cd /usr/share/texmf
                cd tex/latex
                cp -r config config-temp
                cd config-temp
                tex -ini -progname=hugelatex latex.ini
                mv latex.fmt hugelatex.fmt
                mv hugelatex.fmt /usr/share/texmf/web2c
                cd ..
                rm -r config-temp
                cd /usr/share/texmf/bin
                ln -s tex hugelatex
                cd /usr/share/texmf/web2c
The web2c directory contains the texmf.cnf configuration file. Make a backup of this file: cp texmf.cnf texmf.cnf.orig. Edit the file using whatever editor you like, and add the following lines at the end:
               % hugelatex settings
                extra_mem_top.hugelatex = 8000000
                extra_mem_bot.hugelatex = 8000000
                hash_extra.hugelatex = 15000
                pool_size.hugelatex = 5000000
                string_vacancies.hugelatex = 45000
                max_strings.hugelatex = 55000
                pool_free.hugelatex = 47500
                nest_size.hugelatex = 500
                param_size.hugelatex = 1500
                save_size.hugelatex = 5000
                stack_size.hugelatex = 15000

                % jadetex
                extra_mem_top.jadetex = 8000000
                extra_mem_bot.jadetex = 8000000
                hash_extra.jadetex = 20000
                pool_size.jadetex = 5000000
                string_vacancies.jadetex = 45000
                max_strings.jadetex = 55000
                pool_free.jadetex = 47500
                nest_size.jadetex = 500
                param_size.jadetex = 1500
                save_size.jadetex = 5000
                stack_size.jadetex = 15000

                % pdfjadetex
                extra_mem_top.pdfjadetex = 8000000
                extra_mem_bot.pdfjadetex = 8000000
                hash_extra.pdfjadetex = 20000
                pool_size.pdfjadetex = 5000000
                string_vacancies.pdfjadetex = 45000
                max_strings.pdfjadetex = 55000
                pool_free.pdfjadetex = 47500
                nest_size.pdfjadetex = 500
                param_size.pdfjadetex = 1500
                save_size.pdfjadetex = 5000
                stack_size.pdfjadetex = 15000
Here, we've gone ahead and added entries for jadetex and pdfjadetex, which we'll be setting up below. You can play with these memory settings any way you like if you experience trouble with them.

After setting up hugelatex, like above, it may not work until the texhash program is called:

               root# texhash
                texhash: Updating /usr/share/texmf/ls-R...
                texhash: Updating /var/cache/fonts/ls-R...
                texhash: Done.
 jadetex & pdfjadetex

Setting up jadetex and pdfjadetex is similar to hugelatex.

               cd /usr/local/openjade-1.3/dsssl
                make -f Makefile.jadetex install
                # make creates and installs the .fmt
                # files to /usr/share/texmf/web2c

                # Now create symlinks ...
                cd /usr/share/texmf/bin
                ln -s tex jadetex
                ln -s pdftex pdfjadetex

                # Finally, run texhash.
                root# texhash
This Makefile uses hugelatex, so hugelatex must have been setup already. When tex is run as hugelatex, jadetex, or pdfjadetex, it gets its program name (context) from argv[0] in the environment. Then, it scans texmf.cnf, and uses any context-specific settings it finds. The format (.fmt) files in /usr/share/texmf/web2c are also loaded based on the context.

The jadetex command takes a tex file generated from openjade, and outputs a dvi file. pdfjadetex takes a tex file generated from openjade, and outputs a pdf. The dvips program takes the dvi file and outputs a PostScript ps file that you can send to your printer or view with ghostscript gs.

3.3. DocBook SGML DTD

3.3.1. Unpack the DocBook SGML DTD

The DocBook DTD is just some sgml text files, so there is nothing to compile. Just unzip them somewhere:

               # DocBook DTD V4.1 in
                # /usr/local/share/sgml/docbook/4.1

                cd /usr/local/share
                mkdir sgml; cd sgml
                mkdir docbook; cd docbook
                mkdir 4.1; cd 4.1
                unzip -a ~/
If you install doctools-1.2 from the XFree86 distribution, it will put some older versions of DocBook DTD, like 2.4.1/ and 3.0/ in subdirectories of docbook.

There are some differences between the different versions of the DocBook DTD. The xxissues.txt files document those issues. Tags have been added, removed, and renamed between the versions.

If you need to use DocBook DTD V3.1, it is available from the same place where V4.1 is downloaded. V3.1 is used a lot, so its a good idea to get it and install it in a 3.1/ subdirectory.

3.3.2. Unpack the ISO8879 Entities

For each DocBook DTD version unpacked, go into its directory and unpack the iso8879-entities.tar.gz file:

               cd /usr/local/share/sgml/docbook/4.1
                tar -xvzf ~/iso8879-entities.tar.gz
In each DocBook directory, there should be a file or a catalog file, or both. If both are present, they are likely to be identical. If only is present, go ahead and make a symlink:
               # If needed ...
                cd /usr/local/share/sgml/docbook/4.1
                ln -s catalog

3.4. DocBook DSSSL

Installation of the DocBook DSSSL, which works for all versions of DocBook, is just a matter of unzipping it somwhere.

               cd /usr/local/share/sgml
                mkdir dsssl; cd dsssl
                unzip -a ~/

                # If you downloaded the ldp.dsl stylesheet
                # customization, copy it to ...
                cd docbook
                cp ~/ldp.dsl html
                cp ~/ldp.dsl print
                # Copy into both directories.
That's all there is to installing the DSSSL, except for the setup of the $SGML_CATALOG_PATH discussed later. Don't forget to straighten out the file modes and owner/group of these unpacked files - often they are scrambled and inappropriate.

3.5. SGMLtools-Lite

If you like it, you can install the SGMLtools-Lite, but it is optional. Its installation is the standard:

               cd /usr/src
                tar -xvzf ~/sgmltools-lite-3.0.2.tar.gz
                cd sgmltools-lite-3.0.2
                make install
This installs the sgmltools python script to /usr/local/bin. Note that it uses python, so if you don't have it, then this package is useless.

One tweak that has to be done to make the sgmltools script work, is you have to edit it and set the path to openjade: vi `which sgmltools`. Consult its docs to learn more about it.

3.6. htmldoc

3.6.1. binary

Preferrably you downloaded a binary distribution of htmldoc for your platform. The installation is straightforward: just unpack it and run the setup. Read the docs in the package for more info.

3.6.2. source

If you downloaded the source, you will also need the Fast Light Tool Kit or else it will not link:

Installation is autoconf style. Just run the configure script, make, make install. If all goes well, it will install in /usr/bin.

3.6.3. ldp_print

The htmldoc program has (or had) a few glitches when generating output from html files from openjade. For instance, bullet items are not rendered properly and shaded areas are not always shaded.

To fix this problem, a perl script (ldp_print) is available from The lpd_print script processes a nochunks html file from openjade and then runs htmldoc on it to produce correctly rendered pdf and ps.


Get it!

               tar -xvzf ldp_print.tar.gz
                cd ldp_print

                # Copy the lib somewhere where perl looks.
                cp fix_print_html.lib /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl

                cp ldp_print /usr/local/bin
Take a look at the script in case there are lines in it you need to change for your system. Perhaps someday htmldoc's bugs will be fixed and this script will not be needed anymore.

3.7. DocBook2X and (sgmlspl)

3.7.1. sgmlspl

Before the spec files from DocBook2X are of any use, the module for perl version 5 has to be installed, assuming that perl version 5 is installed. The installation of this module is not as automated as most perl module installs. It uses a Makefile that has to be edited first before running make.

               cd /usr/src
                tar -xvzf ~/SGMLSpm-1.03ii.tar.gz
                cd SGMLSpm

                # Edit Makfile
                vi Makefile
                # In the user options of the Makefile
                # set everything correct for
                # your system.
                # Example:
                #       PERL = /usr/bin/perl
                #       BINDIR = /usr/local/bin
                #       PERL5DIR = /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl
                #       MODULEDIR = ${PERL5DIR}/SGMLS
                #       SPECDIR = ${PERL5DIR}
                #       HTMLDIR= /usr/local/apache/htdocs

                make install
sgmlspl gets copied to /usr/local/bin.

3.7.2. docbook2X (

DocBook2X contains no program to compile or install, though it has some scripts you might want to look at, so all there is to do is unpack it somwhere.

               cd /usr/local/share/sgml
                tar -xvzf ~/docbook2X-0.6.0.tar.gz
                cd docbook2X
In the unpacked directory is the and a patch file for it that corrects a few things. Applying the patch is optional but recommended.
Later, in Using DocBook, you will see how to use sgmlspl and to generate a man page from a <refentry> DocBook document.


The $SGML_CATALOG_FILES environment variable is used by openjade (and other SGML software) to locate DTDs and DSL (stylesheets). SGML software cannot function without finding these files, which have been unpacked to various directories. Given the setup as done so far, here is how $SGML_CATALOG_FILES can be set in /etc/profile:

# SGML DocBook - openjade sgmltools-lite


# DSSSL stylesheets
#       Norman Walsh's Modular DocBook Stylesheets
#       OpenJade stylesheets
#       sgmltools-lite's stylesheets

# DocBook DTD
#       From
#       These old ones were installed with doctools-1.2 from

# sgmltools-lite catalogs for LinuxDoc

Save your profile, logout and then log back in to take effect.

Installation is complete! In the next section, we'll test the installation and convert some test DocBook files.

4. Using DocBook

Now that everything is installed, it's time to test it out and see how to use openjade and the other tools.

Figure 1. Example DocBook SGML file - test.sgml

<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN">

<article lang="en">
        <title>This is a Test</title>

                <othername role="mi">L</othername>
                        <email>j.doe@jdoe dot com</email>


        This is a test DocBook document.


<sect1 id="test1">
<title>Test 1</title>
Test section 1.
        <title>Test 1.1</title>
        Test section 1.1

        <title>Test 1.2</title>
                -- Test section 1.2
                openjade -t sgml -d $DSLFILE test.sgml


<sect1 id="test2">
<title>Test 2</title>
Test section 2.

        <title>Test 2.1</title>
        Test section 2.1

        <title>Test 2.2</title>
        Test section 2.2

For a guide to DocBook and a reference of DocBook elements, see:

DocBook: The Definitive Guide.

4.1. Generating HTML

4.1.1. docbook.dsl

Figure 2. Generating HTML output using docbook.dsl

bash$ ls -l
total 4
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1077 Dec 31 16:25 test.sgml
bash$ echo $SGML_SHARE
bash$ openjade -t sgml -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/docbook.dsl test.sgml
[snip - DTDDECL catalog entries are not supported, repeats]
bash$ ls -l
total 12
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1885 Dec 31 17:34 t1.htm
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1077 Dec 31 16:25 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1544 Dec 31 17:34 x27.htm
The warnings about DTDDECL can be ignored. They might be a little annoying, but these warnings are normal when using openjade. Other warnings and errors should be looked at and often indicate syntax errors that you should fix.

Two htm files are generated, one for each <sect1>. The filenames are not very descriptive. Section one appears on the same page as the article information. These are the results of using the default stylesheet that comes with the Modular DocBook Stylesheets, docbook.dsl.

Stylesheets can be customized to improve on these defaults. If you downloaded the Linux Documentation Project's ldp.dsl file and installed it as shown in Section 3.3, then you already have a customized style available.

4.1.2. ldp.dsl

Figure 3. Generating HTML output using ldp.dsl

bash$ openjade -t sgml -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl#html test.sgml
bash$ ls -l
total 16
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        2006 Dec 31 18:00 index.html
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1077 Dec 31 16:25 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1677 Dec 31 18:00 test1.html
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1598 Dec 31 18:00 test2.html

Using ldp.dsl, the output looks better:

  • An index file has been created that contains the article information.

  • A table of contents has been automatically generated.

  • Each <sect1> is in its own file.

  • Filenames are derived from ID attributes of the <sect1> elements.

  • The file extension has changed to html.

  • The <screen> elements are shaded.

Note how the ldp.dsl file is written in the command line: it has "#html" appended. ldp.dsl contains two <STYLE-SPECIFICATION> elements, one with ID="html" and another with ID="print". This selects the html style from within ldp.dsl. The DocBook DSSSL contains support for converting DocBook files into html and print formats. In Section 3.3, we copied ldp.dsl into both the print and html directories. When generating html output, the html style should be selected like above. When generating other types of files, such as rtf and tex, they fall under the print style and so the print style should be selected from ldp.dsl. The alternative is to comment out or delete the print or html style in the copy of ldp.dsl in the respective directory. If a dsl file has more than one style-spec in it and none is selected like in the example above, then the first style encountered in the file is selected. For ldp.dsl, the print style-spec is first in the file, so it gets selected by default. So in the example above, without appending "#html" when specifying ldp.dsl as the dsssl stylesheet, the "print" style-spec would be selected and used when generating the html output. It will work, but is intended for when selecting the print/ldp.dsl and the formatting will be different.

To learn more about how the stylesheet customization files are made, read the documentation for the Modular DocBook Stylesheets. Customization mainly involves setting boolean option parameters to toggle style features on and off. Completely new style logic can be programmed using the the DSSSL language.

The openjade option "-t output_type" specifies the output type. The "-d dsssl_spec" option is the path to the dsssl stylesheet to use. In the example above, the output type specified is sgml, which is for SGML to SGML transformations. HTML, defined by the HTML Document Type Definition (DTD), is an SGML document type just as DocBook is, so "sgml" is the correct output_type option. The other two output types commonly used are "rtf" and "tex". The tex output_type will be used later as an intermediate format for the generation of pdf and ps formats. The dsssl_spec must specify a dsl file, not a directory.

4.2. Generating rtf and tex

bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
bash$ openjade -t rtf -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/print/ldp.dsl#print test.sgml
bash$ openjade -t tex -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/print/ldp.dsl#print test.sgml
bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex

4.3. Generating dvi and ps

Figure 4. Running jadetex to generate a Device Independent (dvi) file.

-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex
bash$ jadetex test.tex
This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)
JadeTeX 1999/06/29: 2.7
Elements will be labelled
Jade begin document sequence at 19
No file test.aux.

LaTeX Warning: Reference `TEST1' on page 1 undefined on input line 238.

LaTeX Warning: Reference `20' on page 1 undefined on input line 262.

LaTeX Warning: Reference `23' on page 1 undefined on input line 285.

LaTeX Warning: Reference `TEST2' on page 1 undefined on input line 316.

LaTeX Warning: Reference `30' on page 1 undefined on input line 340.

LaTeX Warning: Reference `33' on page 1 undefined on input line 363.

[1.0.46] (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1pcr.fd) [2.0.46] [3.0.46]

LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.

Output written on test.dvi (3 pages, 34984 bytes).
Transcript written on test.log.
bash$ ls -l
total 80
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         771 Dec 31 20:55 test.aux
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34984 Dec 31 20:55 test.dvi
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        5072 Dec 31 20:55 test.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex
bash$ jadetex test.tex
This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)
JadeTeX 1999/06/29: 2.7
Elements will be labelled
Jade begin document sequence at 19
(test.aux) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/cyrillic/ot2cmr.fd)
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1phv.fd) [1.0.46]
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1pcr.fd) [2.0.46] [3.0.46] (test.aux) )
Output written on test.dvi (3 pages, 34148 bytes).
Transcript written on test.log.
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/reaster
bash$ ls -l
total 80
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex

The first time jadetex is run, warnings are printed. They can be ignored. Running it a second time, they do not appear again.

Figure 5. Running dvips to generate a PostScript (ps) file.

bash$ ls -l
total 80
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex
bash$ dvips test.dvi
This is dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software (
' TeX output 2000.12.31:2058' ->
<><8r.enc><><><>. [1] [2] [3]
bash$ ls -l
total 116
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34817 Dec 31 21:06
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex

Figure 6. Running htmldoc to generate a PostScript (ps) file.

bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
bash$ export DSL_HTML=$SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl\#html
bash$ openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $DSL_HTML test.sgml | htmldoc -f -
bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        9050 Jan  1 00:44
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
If the ps file doesn't appear as expected, it may be due to bugs in htmldoc. Look inside the ldp_print script if you want to use it to make ps.

4.4. Generating pdf

Figure 7. Running pdfjadetex to generate a Portable Document Format (pdf) file.

bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34817 Dec 31 21:06
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex
bash$ pdfjadetex test.tex
This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159-13d (Web2C 7.3.1)
JadeTeX 1999/06/29: 2.7
Elements will be labelled
Jade begin document sequence at 19
(test.aux) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/cyrillic/ot2cmr.fd)
loading : Context Support Macros / Missing
loading : Context Support Macros / PDF
) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/hyperref/nameref.sty)
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1phv.fd) [1.0.46[/usr/share/texmf/dvips/con
fig/]] (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1pcr.fd) [2.0.46] [3.0.46]
 (test.aux) )<8r.enc>
Output written on test.pdf (3 pages, 9912 bytes).
Transcript written on test.log.
bash$ ls -l
total 128
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 21:13 test.aux
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        5075 Dec 31 21:13 test.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        9912 Dec 31 21:13 test.pdf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34817 Dec 31 21:06
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex
bash$ pdfjadetex test.tex
bash$ pdfjadetex test.tex
pdfjadetex must be run up to three times to resolve all internal references for things such as TOC page numbers.

Figure 8. Running htmldoc to generate a Portable Document Format (pdf) file.

bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
bash$ export DSL_HTML=$SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl\#html
bash$ openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $DSL_HTML test.sgml > test-htmldoc.htm
bash$ ldp_print test-htmldoc.htm
bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        9050 Jan  1 01:17 test-htmldoc.pdf
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml
If enabled in the ldp_print script, this would generate a ps file also.

4.5. Using make

Repeating the commands to generate the output files is tedious. The make command works perfectly to automate the process.

Figure 9. Filename: Makefile - automates document generation.

# Generates online and print versions of SGML source file.


# SGML source file.

# Stylesheets

# Generated files.

# Build rules.

html: $(HTML_FILE)

htm: $(HTM_FILE)

tex: $(TEX_FILE)

rtf: $(RTF_FILE)

pdf: $(PDF_FILE)

dvi: $(DVI_FILE)

ps: $(PS_FILE)

all: html htm tex rtf pdf dvi ps

        rm -f $(BASENAME).{htm,log,aux,ps,pdf,tex,dvi,rtf,fot}
        rm -f *.html

distclean: clean
        rm -f $(BASENAME).tgz

        rm -f $(BASENAME).tgz
        tar -C .. -czf /tmp/$(BASENAME).tgz $(BASENAME)
        mv /tmp/$(BASENAME).tgz .

dist: clean package

distall: all package

# Compile rules.

        openjade -t sgml -d $(DSL_HTML) $(SGML_FILE)

        openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $(DSL_HTML) \
        $(SGML_FILE) > $(HTM_FILE)

        openjade -t tex -d $(DSL_PRINT) $(SGML_FILE)

        openjade -t rtf -d $(DSL_PRINT) $(SGML_FILE)

# [pdf]jadetex is run 3 times to resolve references.
#       pdfjadetex $(TEX_FILE)
#       pdfjadetex $(TEX_FILE)
#       pdfjadetex $(TEX_FILE)

# This *should* work, but htmldoc has bugs ...
#       openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $(DSL_HTML) \
#       $(SGML_FILE) | htmldoc -f $(PDF_FILE) -

# Have to use ldp_print to work around htmldoc bugs
# ldp_print can also do the ps file - see script
        ldp_print $(HTM_FILE)

        jadetex $(TEX_FILE)
        jadetex $(TEX_FILE)
        jadetex $(TEX_FILE)

        dvips $(DVI_FILE)

#       openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $(DSL_HTML) \
#       $(SGML_FILE) | htmldoc -f $(PS_FILE) -

Usage is just like for most projects:

Figure 10. Invoking make to run Makefile

               -- generate html (default)
                -- generate just pdf
                make pdf
                -- generate all files
                make all
                -- delete all generated files
                make clean
                -- create tgz distribution
                -- with no generated files
                make dist
                -- create tgz distribution
                -- containing all generated files
                make distall

Notice the commented compile rules for pdf and ps which provide alternative means of generating those files.

4.6. Generating a man page

During the section on installing everything, we installed the perl version 5 module Then we installed Docbook2X which provides the files for transforming DocBook <refentry> documents into nroff (man page) format with sgmlspl.

An example Docbook <refentry> document, for the foo command, is given below.

Figure 11. foo command man page, docbook <refentry> source (foo-ref.sgml)

<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN">
        <refmiscinfo>foo 1.0</refmiscinfo>
        Does nothing useful.
<arg><option>-f </option><replaceable class="parameter">bar</replaceable></arg>
<arg><option>-d<replaceable class="parameter">n</replaceable></option></arg>
<arg rep="repeat"><replaceable class="parameter">file</replaceable></arg>
        <command>foo</command> does nothing useful.
                <term>-f <replaceable class="parameter">bar</replaceable></term>
                        Takes <filename>bar</filename> as it's run
                        control file. If this were a real program,
                        there might be more to say here about what
                        bar is and how it will be used.
                <term>-d<replaceable class="parameter">n</replaceable></term>
                        Do something, where integer
                        <replaceable class="parameter">n</replaceable>
                        specifies how many times.
                <term><replaceable class="parameter">file...</replaceable></term>
                        Processes the files in the order listed,
                        sending all output to stdout.
        <command>foo</command> -f foo.conf -d2
        Other programs named <command>foo</command> may exist and actually
        do something!
        None.  Program does nothing.
                <othername role="mi">E</othername>
                <contrib>Original author</contrib>

Figure 12. Generating a man page with onsgmls, sgmlspl, and

bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        2434 Jan  3 03:51 foo-ref.sgml
bash$ onsgmls foo-ref.sgml | sgmlspl $SGML_SHARE/docbook2X/
bash$ ls -l
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        2434 Jan  3 03:51 foo-ref.sgml
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1129 Jan  3 04:03 foo.1
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users           0 Jan  3 04:03 manpage.links
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users           0 Jan  3 04:03 manpage.log
-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users          15 Jan  3 04:03 manpage.refs
bash$ groff -mandoc -Tascii foo.1

FOO(1)                                                     FOO(1)

       foo - Does nothing useful.

       foo [ -f bar ]  [ -dn ]  [ file... ]

       foo does nothing useful.

       -f bar Takes  bar as its run control file. If this were a
              real program, there might be more to say here about
              what bar is and how it will be used.

       -dn    Do  something,  where  integer n specifies how many

              Processes the files in the  order  listed,  sending
              all output to stdout.

       foo -f foo.conf -d2

       Other  programs  named foo may exist and actually do some-

       None. Program does nothing.

       Foo E Bar (Original author)

[snip - several extra blank lines that man would not show]
foo 1.0                     2001-01-01                          1
bash$ groff -mandoc -Tascii foo.1 | less
bash$ less foo.1

The man page, foo.1, is generated as a Section 1 page. The groff command is used to give a quick look at its formatted appearance.

To install this man page, it belongs in any man/man1 directory, where the directory man/ is added to $MANPATH in the environment. The standard location is /usr/local/man/man1. The standard sections in the man pages system are 1 though 9. Each is for holding specific catagories of documentation.

Table 1. Manual Pages Sections

Section Purpose
man1 User programs
man2 System calls
man3 Library functions and subroutines
man4 Devices
man5 File formats
man6 Games
man7 Miscellaneous
man8 System administration
man9 Kernel internal variables and functions

The source file for a man page, like foo-ref.sgml, can be processed into all the other formats just like any other DocBook file. So using the same commands discussed earlier to generate html and print output types, a man page can be made into html and rtf, tex, pdf, dvi, and ps. This can really save a lot of conversion work!

Have fun !

A. Legal

A.1. Copyright and Licenses

Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Robert B. Easter

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

A.2. Disclaimer

No liability for the contents of this document can be accepted. Use the concepts, examples and other content at your own risk.

All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

B. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.


You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.


If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).

  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

  9. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

  11. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

  13. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

  14. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.



Subscribe to Comments Feed

Who we are ?

The Linux Foundation is a non-profit consortium dedicated to the growth of Linux.

More About the foundation...

Frequent Questions

Linux Training / Board