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Latvian-HOWTO


Latvian HOWTO

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v1.5, 2002-06-19
Ðî dokumenta mçríis ir kopîgiem spçkiem iegût latvieðu valodas atbalstu operâciju sistçmâ Linux. Note to English readers: The aim of this document is to describe GNU/Linux localization issues specific for Latvian users.
 Copyright (c)  2001  Artis Trops.
 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
 with the Invariant Section being "Priekðvârds", with no
 Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.
 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
 Free Documentation License".
 Autortiesîbas (c)  2001  Artis Trops.
 Tiek dota atïauja kopçt, izplatît un/vai modificçt ðo dokumentu saskaòâ 
 ar GNU Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licences, Versijas 1.1 vai jebkuras vçlâkas
 versijas, kuru publicçjis Brîvâs Programmatûras Fonds, nosacîjumiem;
 ar Bezvariantu Paragrâfu "Priekðvârds", bez Pirmâ-Vâka Tekstiem 
 un bez Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Tekstiem.
 Licences kopija ir iekïauta paragrâfâ ar nosaukumu "GNU
 Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licence".

1. Priekðvârds

2. Xlogi (Xwindow)

3. Konsole

4. Netscape

5. NLS

6. GNOME & KDE

7. GNU Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licence

8. GNU Free Documentation License


1. Priekðvârds

Katrs Linux lietotâjs Latvijâ ir saskâries ar sekojoðu problçmu: mûsu iecienîtajai operâciju sistçmai nav latvieðu valodas.. Arî informâcijas par to, kâ Linuxam iemâcît runât ar mums latviski, ir vai nu ïoti maz, vai arî, ja kaut ko tomçr izdodas sameklçt, tâ ir lietotâjiem grûti saprotama, un ar latviskoðanas realizçðanu sâkas problçmas. Ðo problçmu tad arî kopâ centîsimies risinât.

Ðis Latvian-HOWTO ir tapis sadarbîbâ ar LL10NT (Latvian Localization Team), tâpçc, ja rodas kâdas problçmas vai jautâjumi sakarâ ar Linux latviskoðanas lietâm, griezieties pçc palîdzîbas LL10NT forumâ vai arî IRCnet kanâlâ #ll10nt. Savu iespçju robeþâs centîsimies rast risinâjumu. Protams, visi mîïi aicinâti arî piebiedroties LL10NT komandai un darboties tâ, lai latvieðu valodas atbalstu Linux operâciju sistçmâ padarîtu vçl plaðâku un labâku. Gribçtu vçl piebilst un atgâdinât, ka ðis Latvian-HOWTO ne tuvu nav perfekts un pabeigts, tâpçc vçlos, lai jûs ziòotu, ja atrodiet ðeit kâdu kïûdu. Neturiet arî sveci zem pûra, ja ziniet, kâ latviskoðanu Linuxâ varçtu padarît vçl efektîvâku un çrtâku.

Tâ kâ mums visiem ne seviðíi patîk lasît garus un apnicîgus tekstus par tçmu, kuru var pateikt pâris vârdos, pie tam visu vienmçr gribas âtri un uzreiz, centîðos ðo Latvian-HOWTO saglabât iespçjami îsâku un skaidrâku ar mçríi, lai jûs maksimâli îsâ laikâ varçtu strâdât Linuxâ, lietojot latvieðu valodu. Saturu mçìinâðu izklâstît viegli saprotamâ valodâ, lai pçc iespçjas padarîtu visai sareþìîto latviskoðanas procedûru vienkârðâku un saprotamâku katram.

Pats gan es dotajâ brîdî lietoju Linux Mandrake. Ceru, ka ðeit aprakstîtie padomi strâdâs bez problçmâm arî citos distributîvos. Katrâ ziòâ par savu latviskoðanas pieredzi (labu vai sliktu) darbâ ar citâm Linux distribûcijâm ziòojiet.

Latvian-HOWTO jaunâkâ versija atrodama http://linux.ma-1.lv/ll10nt.

Pateicos visiem tiem, kuri ar savâm idejâm, kritiku un atbalstu ir devuði ieguldîjumu gan ðî dokumenta pilnveidç, gan arî latvieðu valodas atbalstam atvçrtâ un brîvâ koda programmatûrâs.

Bet.. kâ Andris Maiziks aka Andzha ir teicis - neaizmirstiet, ka datori ir eksperimentâla zinâtne..

Tâtad - ieteikumi, labojumi un papildinâjumi laipni gaidîti... un uz priekðu!


2. Xlogi (Xwindow)

2.1 Nepiecieðamie faili

Lai realizçtu latvieðu valodas atbalstu X11 vidç, jums bûs nepiecieðami sekojoðie faili:

  • lv  (ja vçlaties rakstît ar labo Alt taustiòu)
  • lva (ja vçlaties rakstît ar apastrofa ' taustiòu)
  • lvt (ja vçlaties rakstît ar tildes ~ taustiòu)
  • Compose

Tie atrodami ðeit: X-files.tar.gz

2.2 Liekam visu savâs vietâs

Tagad, kad vajadzîgie faili ir iegûti, nepiecieðams tos salikt îstajâs vietâs.

Piezîme: Ja lietojat kâdu no pçdçjâm XFree86 versijâm (sâkot ar 4.1.0), jûs jau varat latviski rakstît bez jebkâdas papildus failu modificçðanas, specifisko rakstzîmju iegûðanai izmanotojot labo Alt - lai ðo iespçju aktivizçtu, izpildâm komandu setxkbdmap lv.

Izvçlamies sev pieòemamâko speicâlâs rakstzîmes iegûðanas veidu un kopçjam attiecîgo failu norâdîtajâ direktorijâ, piemçram:

# cp lv /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/

Domâju, ka bûtu lieki atgâdinât, ka, lai veiktu nepiecieðamâs darbîbas, ir jâbût root tiesîbâm.

Lai aktivizçtu mçmâ taustiòa pareizu darbîbu, attiecîgajâ vietâ kopçjam failu Compose. Taèu ðeit ir viena nianse. Ja savu Linuxu esiet instalçjuði izmantojot anglisko saskarni, tad visticamâk, ka lokâles ir pçc noklusçjuma ieslçgtas iso8859-1 reþîmâ. Taèu, ja instalçjât tâ, ka instalâcijas process notika latvieðu valodâ, kâ to darîju es, tad lokâles pçc noklusçjuma jau pareizi ir ieslçgtas iso8859-13 reþîmâ. Izejot no jûsu konkrçtâs situâcijas tad arî tur kopçjam failu Compose. Ja ne nieka no augstâkminçtâ nesapratât, tad labâk iekopçjiet Compose abos lokâles variantos - droðs paliek nedroðs - un gan jau nekas slikts nenotiks.. ;->

# cp Compose /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/locale/iso8859-1/
# cp Compose /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/locale/iso8859-13/

Kad tas ir izdarîts, izpildâm jau iepriekðminçto komandu setxkbmap lv (lv vietâ var bût arî lva vai lvt - atkarîbâ no jûsu izvçles) un mçìinâm kaut ko uzrakstît latviski.

Ja tests ir izdevies, tad jûs noteikti vçlçsieties saglabât latvieðu valodu Xwindow sistçmâ un padarît to pieejamu un izmantojamu arî pçc datora vai Xu pârstartçðanas, tâpçc papildus ir jâmodificç /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 fails (ja lietojam XFree86 4.x.x) tâ, lai iegûtu Option "XkbLayout" "lv". Piemçrs:

Section "InputDevice"
    Identifier  "Keyboard1"
    Driver      "Keyboard"
    Option      "AutoRepeat" "250 30"
    Option      "XkbRules"   "xfree86"
    Option      "XkbModel"   "pc105"
    Option      "XkbLayout"  "lv"
EndSection

Piezîme: Ja lietojat XFree86 3.x.x versiju, tâ kâ primâro izmantos failu /etc/X11/XF86Config. Piemçrs:

Section "Keyboard"
    Protocol        "Standard"
    XkbKeycodes     "xfree86"
    XkbTypes        "default"
    XkbCompat       "default"
    XkbSymbols      "us(pc105)"
    XkbGeometry     "pc"
    XkbRules        "xfree86"
    XkbModel        "pc105"
    XkbLayout       "lv"
EndSection

2.3 Fonti

No ðî brîþa latvieðu teksta ievades sistçmai vajadzçtu strâdât, taèu, lai gaidîtais rezultâts tiktu atbilstoði attçlots arî uz ekrâna, ir nepiecieðami fonti, kuri atbalsta iso8859-13 kodçjumu vai Unicode. Linuxâ iespçjams arî strâdât ar True Type fontiem. Detalizçtâka informâcija rodama Font-HOWTO vai vçl konkrçtâk TrueType Fonts with XFree86 4.0.x mini-HOWTO. Pagaidâm ðajâ dokumentâ fontu instalâcija aprakstîta netiks, jo uz doto brîdi tas ir ârpus Latvian-HOWTO uzdevuniem un mçríiem. Iespçjams, ka nâkotnç tiks iekïauts arî îsais eksperimentâlais kurss fontu instalçðanâ.


3. Konsole

Pirms pievçrðamies konsoles latviskoðanai, gribçtu piezimçt, ka konsole nav terminâlis X logos.. Konsoli iegûstam, piespieþot Ctrl+Alt+Fn, kur Fn - kâds no funkciju taustiòiem.

3.1 Nepiecieðamie faili

Ïoti iespçjams, ka visi minimâli nepiecieðamie faili konsoles latviskoðanai jau atrodas jûsu datorâ (/usr/lib/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/lv-latin7.kmap.gz un /usr/lib/kbd/consolefonts/tlat7.psf.gz vai lat7-14.psf.gz) un neko papildus kopçt nav nepiecieðams. Ja jums to nav, tad noderçs ðî failu pakotne:

3.2 Liekam visu savâs vietâs

Pieòemot, ka izmantojam piedâvâto failu pakotni, izpildâm:

# cp lv-latin7.kmap.gz /usr/lib/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/
# cp lv.psf.gz /usr/lib/kbd/consolefonts/

Tagad jaunâs iespçjas ir nepiecieðams aktivizçt, tâpçc izpildâm:

$ consolechars -f lv -m straight-to-font
$ loadkeys lv-latin7

Piezîme: Tie, kuri izmanto jau esoðos failus, pie consolechars nomaina lv uz savu fontu, tâ vietâ rakstot, teiksim, lat7-14. Taèu es tomçr ieteiktu lietot fontu lv, jo tas labâk izskatâs tâdâs programmâs, kâ mc un citâs.

Tagad varam mçìinât veikt nelielu pârbaudi, lai redzçtu, vai latvieðu valoda strâdâ konsoles reþîmâ. Specifiskos latvieðu valodas simbolus iegûstam, lietojot AltGr (labo Alt taustiòu) kopâ ar nepiecieðamo rakstu zîmi.

Lai katru reizi nebûtu jâizpilda consolechars un loadkeys, varam izveidot augstâkminçto komandu saturoðu miniskriptu lvkonsole un pçc tam, lai to palaiþot viegli atrastu:

# cp lvkonsole /usr/local/bin

3.3 Latvieðu valoda kâ noklusçtâ konsoles valoda

Uzmanîbu! Zemâkaprakstîtais variants nestrâdâ perfekti, kaut arî îstais fonts un tastatûras karte ielâdçjas pareizi, specifiskâs rakstzîmes neattçlojas pareizi. Nepiecieðama --acm straight-to-font opcijas aktivizçðana. Ja kâds ir panâcis nevainojamu latvieðu rakstîbas darbîbu konsolç arî pçc datora pârstartçðanas, ziòojiet.

Bûtu ïoti neçrti katru reizi, kad vien mums ir nepiecieðama latvieðu valoda konsoles reþîmâ, izpildît lvkonsole. Lai konsolç varçtu vienmçr rakstît latvieðu valodâ, nepiecieðams izdarît nelielas izmaiòas sistçmas konfigurâcijas failos.

Tâpçc rediìçjam failu /etc/sysconfig/i18n tâ, lai sanâk

SYSFONT=lv

Un attiecîgi failu /etc/sysconfig/keyboard, lai iegûtu, ka

KEYTABLE=lv-latin7

Rezultâtâ latvieðu valodas atbalsts arî konsolç ir realizçts.

3.4 Daþu programmu pielâgoðana darbam latvieðu valodâ

Ðajâ nodaïâ tiks sniegta informâcija, kâ jâizmaina daþu lietojumprogrammu konfigurâcijas faili, lai tâs darbotos pienâcîgi latvieðu valodas reþîmâ. Piezîme - pats gan neesmu lielu daïu zemâkaprakstîto darbîbu veicis, tâ kâ... :-> ja darbojas vai nedarbojas, vai jums ir padomâ vçl kâdas lietderîgas programmu konfigurâcijas failu izmaiòas, kuras bûtu nepiecieðams veikt labâkas latvieðu valodas darbîbas nodroðinâðanai konsoles reþîmâ, rakstiet This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

bash:

Ja /etc/inputrc faila uzstâdîjumi atðíiras no zemâkparâdîtajiem, bûtu lietderîgi pievietot savam ~/.inputrc failam:

set meta-flag on
set convert-meta off
set input-meta on
set output-meta on
Jebkurâ citâ gadîjumâ tam nebûs nozîmes.
elm:

Pievienojiet sekojoðo savam ~/.elm/elmrc failam:

charset = iso-8859-13
displaycharset = iso-8859-13
textencoding = 8bit
Daþâm elm versijâm tas var nestrâdât. Varat iegût daïçju MIME atbalstu iekð elm, ja lietosiet metamail.
joe:

Palaidiet komandu kâ

joe -asis
vai pievienojiet savam ~/.joerc failam:
-asis
metamail:

Iestâdiet sekojoðo mainîgo:

MM_CHARSET=ISO-8859-13
nn:

Uzstâdiet savâ ~/.nn/init failâ:

set data-bits 8
pine:

Setup -> Config Atrodiet character-set un ierakstiet iso-8859-13.

Tas ir teorçtiski pareizs risinâjums, taèu pagaidâm var radît liekas problçmas jûsu korespondentiem, tâpçc var mçìinât iso-8859-13 vietâ rakstît windows-1257.

rlogin:

Palaidiet komandu lîdzîgi kâ

rlogin -8 foo.bar.lv
sendmail:

Pievienojiet (vai atkomentçjiet) savâ /etc/sendmail.cf failâ:

O SevenBitInput=False
O EightBitMode=pass8
O DefaultCharSet=iso-8859-13
mc:

Options -> Display bits... Ieslçdziet Full 8 bits output un Full 8 bits input. Neaizmirstiet saglabât jauno konfigurâciju.

telnet:

Ievietojiet ðâda veida rindu savâ ~/.telnetrc failâ katrai adresei, kurai vçlaties pieslçgties, lietojot telnet:

<hostname> set outbinary true
Piemçrs:
localhost set outbinary true
foo.bar.lv set outbinary true
tin:

Pievienojiet sekojoðo savam ~/.tin/headers failam:

Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-13
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

4. Netscape

Parasti problçmas, ar kâdâm lietotâjiem nâkas saskarties, izmantojot Netscape lielâ informâcijas tîmekïa pârlûkprogrammu, ir sekojoðâs - vai nu lapâs, kur vajadzçtu parâdîties tekstam latvieðu valodâ, ir redzamas daudzas jautâjumu zîmes, vai arî, ja iepriekðminçto problçmu kaut kâ ir izdevies novçrst, tad latvieðu burtu vietâ ir redzamas íeburiem lîdzîgas rakstu zîmes. Ðîs nepilnîbas tad kopîgiem spçkiem centîsimies novçrst. Protams, lai gûtu cerçto rezultâtu, arî bez latvieðu fontiem neiztikt. Ja nevçlaties mocîties ar Netscape latviskoðanu, variet lietot Mozilla, Galeon vai citus pârlûkus, kuriem latvieðu valodas pareiza attçloðana nevajadzçtu sagâdât problçmas.

4.1 Nepiecieðamie faili

Lai panâktu vçlamo rezultâtu Netscape latviskoðanas sakarâ, nepiecieðams mums bûs ðis skripts:

4.2 Liekam visu savâs vietâs

Lai varçtu ar skripta palîdzîbu veikt nepiecieðamâs izmaiòas citos failos, ir nepiecieðamas root tiesîbas. Pietam, lai varçtu NC_baltic skriptu "iedarbinât", vajag to pataisît palaiþamu:

                                                                 
$ chmod a+x NC_baltic

Kad tas ir izdarîts, palaiþam arî paðu skriptu:

# ./NC_baltic

Visur nekautrçjoties atbildam ar "yes"...

No ðî brîþa programmai Netscape vajadzçtu darboties kâ nâkas. Iestâdâm Character setBaltic (Windows 1257) un visam vajadzçtu strâdât.


5. NLS

5.1 Latvieðu lokâles

Tâtad, lai tiktu pareizi attçloti laika, datuma, valûtas u.c. formâti un lai varçtu sekmîgi noritçt latvisko elementu ievieðana kâ GNOME & KDE, tâ arî atseviðíu citu programmu lietotâja saskarnç, nepiecieðams izveidot latvieðu lokâles. Iespçjams, ka latvieðu lokâles jûsu sistçmâ jau ir saliktas tâ, kâ vajag, ja lietojat Mandrake vai lîdzîgu distribûciju. Latvieðu lokâïu faili atrodas /usr/share/locale/lv. Par to, vai ir iestâdîtas latvieðu lokâles, pârliecinamies, izpildot komandu locale vai echo $LANG. Vai latvieðu lokâles ir pieejamas sistçmai, pârliecinamies, izpildot locale -a|grep lv. Ja latvieðu lokâles jums nav, uzstâdiet tâs, izmantojot jûsu distribûcijas piedâvâto pakotni. Ja tas nav iespçjams, latvieðu lokâles kompilçt varam arî paði:

# localedef -c -i lv_LV -f ISO-8859-13 lv

Lai sistçma zinâtu, ka ar ðo brîdi lietojamas ir latvieðu lokâles, rediìçjam savu .bash_profile failu (pieòemot, ka lietotâ èaula ir bash) un tam beigâs pievienojam

LANG=lv
LC_COLLATE=lv
LC_CTYPE=lv
LC_MESSAGES=lv
LC_MONETARY=lv
LC_NUMERIC=lv 
LC_TIME=lv
LC_ALL=lv
export LANG LC_COLLATE LC_CTYPE LC_MESSAGES LC_MONETARY LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_ALL

Visai sistçmai lokâles tiek definçtas RedHat un lîdzîgiem /etc/sysconfig/i18n, bet Debian lietotâjiem /etc/environment failâ.

Vai viss strâdâ, pârliecinâties varam, izpildot, piemçram, komandu

$ cal -m

5.2 Failu nosaukumi

Ðeit tiks sniegta informâcija par to, kâ aktvizçt failu nosaukumu pareizu attçloðanu latvieðu valodâ (tas gan vairâk attiecas uz tâdâm failsistçmâm, kâ FAT, ISO9660, ..)

# insmod nls_cp775
# insmod nls_iso8859-13

Ja augstâkminçtais neizdevâs, un arî paðâ kodolâ konkrçtais atbalsts jau nav iestrâdâts, bûs nepiecieðama kerneïa pârkompilâcija ar papildus opcijâm, kas pieejamas iekð Filesystems > Native Language Support, ISO-8859-13 un Codepage 775 atbalstam.

Rezultâtu varam pârbaudît ðâdi (Piemçrs):

# mount /dev/hda1 -t vfat -o codepage=775,iocharset=iso8859-13 /mnt/win_c


6. GNOME & KDE

6.1 GNOME

Tâ kâ viens no LL10NT projekta virzieniem ir arî GNOMEs po moduïu tulkoðana, tâpçc ðajâ sadaïâ tiks sniegta informâcija, kas ir jâdara ar po moduïiem, lai arî GTK+ lietotâja saskarne bûtu latvieðu valodâ. Protams, pagaidâm vçl ðeit latvieðu valodas atbalsts nav realizçts pilnîbâ. Tâpçc ðî nu ir tâ reize, kur arî jûs varat sniegt atbalstu ar savu lîdzdalîbu po moduïu tulkoðanâ - darbs bûs.

Vçl tikai nepiecieðami arî paði po moduïi, kuri iegûstami LL10NT Komandas GNOMEs statusa sekcijâ.

Liekam visu savâs vietâs

Lai po moduïi darbotos tâ, kâ mçs vçlamies redzçt tos darbojamies, nepiecieðams tos pârveidot par mo moduïiem:

$ msgfmt kautkâds.po -o kautkâds.mo

Tagad, kâ jau solîts, liekam nu jau jauniegûtos mo moduïus savâs vietâs:

# cp *.mo /usr/share/locale/lv/LC_MESSAGES/

6.2 KDE

Arî darbs pie KDE tulkoðanas rit pilnâ sparâ. Interesenti, kas vçlas lîdzdarboties sîkâku informâciju var uzzinât no This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Îsa instrukcija problçmu novçrðanai

Bieþi vien atrisinâjums ir jaunâkâs kde-i18n-lv pakotnes uzlikðana, ar kuru tad arî tiek realizçts K Desktop Environment latviskais atbalsts.

Ja, rakstot specifiskâs latvieðu rakstzîmes KDE aplikâcijâs, to vietâ redzat jautâjuma zîmes, sava .bash_profile faila galâ pievienojam

export LANG=lv_LV.ISO-8859-13

vai arî sistçmas mçroga izmaiòu panâkðanai attiecîgi nomainâm mainîgâ LANG vçrtîbu failâ /etc/sysconfig/i18n.


7. GNU Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licence

Versija 1.1, Marts 2000

Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Autortiesîbas (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
Ikvienam ir ïauts kopçt un izplatît burtiskas ðî licences
dokumenta kopijas, bet mainît to nav atïauts.

0. PREAMBULA

Ðîs Licences mçríis ir padarît rokasgrâmatu, mâcîbu grâmatu vai citu rakstîtu dokumentu "brîvu" ðâdâ bîvîbas nozîmç: nodroðinot ikvienam tiesisku brîvîbu kopçt un tâlâkizplatît to, ar vai bez tâ modificçðanas vai nu komerciâli, vai nekomerciâli. Otrkârt, ðî Licence saglabâ autoram un izdevçjam iespçju saòemt atzinîbu par viòu darbu, neuzskatot tos par atbildîgiem par citu veiktajâm modifikâcijâm.

Ðî Licence ir kâ sava veida "copyleft", kas nozîmç, ka no dokumenta atvasinâtajiem darbiem paðiem jâbût brîviem tâdâ paðâ nozîmç. Tâ papildina GNU Vispârîgo Publisko Licenci (GNU General Public License), kas ir copyleft licence, radîta brîvajai programmatûrai.

Mçs radîjâm ðo Licenci, lai to lietotu brîvâs programmatûras rokasgrâmatâs, jo brîvajai programmatûrai ir vajadzîga brîva dokumentâcija: brîvai programmai bûtu jâiznâk ar rokasgrâmatâm, nodroðinot tâs paðas brîvîbas, kuras programmatûra. Bet ðî Licence nav ierobeþota tikai programmatûras rokasgrâmatâm, tâ var tikt lietota jebkuram tekstuâlam darbam, neatkarîgi no tâ tçmas vai tâ, vai tas tiek publicçts kâ drukâta grâmata. Mçs rekomendçjam ðo Licenci, galvenokârt, darbiem, kuru nolûks ir instrukcijas vai norâdîjumi.

1. LIETOJAMÎBA UN TERMINI

Ðî Licence attiecas uz katru rokasgrâmatu vai citu darbu, kas satur aiz autortiesîbu îpaðnieka atrodoðos paziòojumu, kas nosaka, ka tas var tikt izplatîts saskaòâ ar ðîs Licences noteikumiem. "Dokuments" zemâk attiecas uz katru ðâdu rokasgrâmatu vai darbu. Jebkurð sabiedrîbas loceklis ir licences saòçmçjs un tiek uzrunâts uz "jûs".

Dokumenta "Modificçta Versija" nozîmç jebkuru Dokumenta vai tâ daïas saturoðu darbu vai nu burtiski kopçtu, vai ar izmaiòâm un/vai tulkotu citâ valodâ.

"Sekundârais Paragrâfs" ir Dokumenta nosaukts pielikums vai sâkuma nozîmes paragrâfs, kurð ekskluzîvi aplûko Dokumenta izdevçja vai autora saistîbu ar Dokumenta kopçjo tematu (vai radniecîgiem jautâjumiem) un nesatur neko, kas varçtu tieði ietilpt konkrçtajâ kopçjâ tematâ. (Piemçram, ja Dokuments ir pa daïai matemâtikas mâcîbu grâmata, Sekundârais Paragrâfs nepaskaidro neko par matemâtiku.) Saistîbas nozîme varçtu bût vçsturiskas saiknes ar tematu vai radniecîgi jautâjumi, vai to aplûkojums no juridiska, komerciâla, filosofiska, çtiska vai politiska viedokïa.

"Bezvariantu Paragrâfi" ir noteikti Sekundârie Paragrâfi, kuru virsraksti kâ Bezvariantu Paragrâfus saturoði ir norâdîti paziòojumâ, kas nosaka, ka Dokuments ir izlaists zem ðîs Licences.

"Vâku Teksti" ir noteikti, îsi teksta fragmenti, kuri norâdîti kâ Pirmâ-Vâka Teksti vai Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Teksti paziòojumâ, kas nosaka, ka Dokuments ir izlaists zem ðîs Licences.

"Caurspîdîga" Dokumenta kopija nozîmç maðîniski nolasâmu kopiju, attçlotu formâtâ, kura specifikâcija ir pieejama plaðai sabiedrîbai, kura saturs var tikt skatîts un rediìçts tieði un vienkârði ar parastiem teksta redaktoriem vai (pikseïu veidojoðiem attçliem) parastâm krâsoðanas programmâm, vai (zîmçjumiem) kâdu plaði pieejamu zîmçjumu redaktoru, un tâ ir piemçrota ievadei teksta formatçtâjos vai automâtiskai tulkoðanai daþâdos formâtos, kuri piemçroti ievadei teksta formatçtâjos. Kopija, kura veidota citâdâk kâ Caurspîdîgs faila formâts, kura maríçjums ticis radîts, lai kavçtu vai atrunâtu lasîtâjus no sekojoðâs modificçðanas, nav Caurspîdîga. Kopija, kas nav "Caurspîdîga" tiek saukta par "Necaurredzamu".

Derîgu Caurspîdîgo formâtu piemçri ietver tîru ASCII bez maríçjuma, Texinfo ievades formâtu, LaTeX ievades formâtu, SGML vai XML, lietojot publiski pieejamos DTD, un standartam atbilstoðs vienkârðs HTML, kas radîts cilvçciskai modifikâcijai. Necaurredzamie formâti ietver PostScript, PDF, patentçtçtus formâtus, kurus var lasît un rediìçt tikai patentçti teksta redaktori, SGML vai XML, kam DTD un/vai apstrâdes rîki nav vipârçji pieejami, un maðîniski ìenerçts HTML, kuru izveidojis kâds teksta redaktors tikai izvades nolûkâ.

"Titullapa" nozîmç drukâtâm grâmatâm, paðu titullapu plus tâdas turpmâkâs lapas, kuras nepiecieðamas, lai salasâmi saturçtu to materiâlu, kam ðî Licence pieprasa parâdîties titullapâ. Darbiem, kuru formâtos nav titullapas kâ tâdas, "Titullapa" nozîmç tekstu tuvu vissaredzamâkajam darba virsrakstam pirms teksta daïas sâkuma.

2. BURTISKA KOPÇÐANA

Jûs varat kopçt un izplatît Dokumentu jebkurâ veidâ vai nu komerciâli, vai nekomerciâli, nodroðinot, ka ðî Licence, autortiesîbu atzîmes un licences paziòojums, kurð apgalvo, ka ðî Licence attiecas uz Dokumentu, tiek reproducçts visâs kopijâs un ka jûs nepievienosiet citus nosacîjumus jebkuram no ðajâ Licencç esoðajiem. Jûs nedrîkstiet uzlikt tehniskus ierobeþojumus, lai kavçtu vai kontrolçtu lasîðanu vai tâlâku kopçðanu tâm kopijâm, kuras jûs izveidojat vai izplatât. Tomçr jûs varat pieòemt kompensâciju pret kopiju apmaiòu. Ja jûs izplatât pietiekami lielu daudzumu kopiju, jums ir jâseko arî nosacîjumiem 3. daïâ.

Jûs varat arî aizdot kopijas pçc tâdiem paðiem nosacîjumiem, kâdi noteikti augstâk, un jûs varat publiskti izstâdît kopijas.

3. KOPÇÐANA LIELÂ DAUDZUMÂ

Ja jûs publicçjat drukâtas skaitliski vairâk kâ 100 Dokumenta kopijas, un Dokumenta licences nosacîjumi pieprasa Vâku tekstus, jums kopiju vâkos skaidri un salasâmi jâiekïauj visi ðie Vâku Teksti: Pirmâ-Vâka Teksts uz pirmâ vâka un Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Teksts uz pçdçjâ vâka. Abiem vâkiem arî skaidri un salasâmi jâidentificç jûs kâ ðo kopiju izdevçju. Pirmajâ vâkâ jâparâdâs pilnam nosaukumam, visiem nosaukuma vârdiem esot vienâdi izceltiem un saredzamiem. Jûs varat pievienot papildus materiâlu vâka tekstiem. Kopçðana ar izmaiòâm, kas skar tikai vâkus, kamçr tie satur Dokumenta nosaukumu un apmierina ðos nosacîjumus, citâdâ ziòâ var tikt uzskatîta par burtisku kopçðanu.

Ja nepiecieðamie teksti kâdâ no vâkiem ir pârâk apjomîgi, lai salasâmi tajos ietilptu, jums vajadzçtu pirmos sarakstâ likt (tik daudz, cik saprâtîgi iekïaujas) uz attiecîgâ vâka un pârçjo uz blakus lapâm.

Ja jûs publicçjat vai izplatât Necaurredzamas skaitliski vairâk kâ 100 Dokumenta kopijas, jums ir vai nu jâiekïauj maðîniski lasâma Caurspîdîga kopija kopâ ar katru Necaurredzamo kopiju, vai jâpaziòo katrâ vai ar katru Necaurredzamo kopiju publiski pieejama vieta datortîklâ, kurâ atrodama pilna Caurspîdîga Dokumenta kopija brîva no pievienotâ materiâla, pie kuras vispârçjai tîklu lietojoðai sabiedrîbai ir pieeja anonîmi lejuplâdçt to bez maksas, lietojot publiskâ standarta tîkla protokolus. Ja lietojat pçdçjo iespçju, jums jâveic nepiecieðamie piesardzîbas soïi, kad sâkat Necaurredzmas kopijas izplatîðanu lielâ daudzumâ, lai nodroðinâtu, ka ðî Caurspîdîgâ kopija bûs tâdçjâdi pieejama norâdîtajâ vietâ vçl vismaz gadu pçc pçdçjâs reizes, kad izplatîjât (tieði vai caur saviem aìentiem, vai mazumtirgotâjiem) Necaurredzmas kopijas tirâþu sabiedrîbai.

Ir ieteicams, bet ne nepiecieðams, ka jûs kontaktçjaties ar Dokumenta autoru jau laikus pirms tâlâkizplatot jebkâdu lielu daudzumu kopiju, lai dotu viòam iespçju nodroðinât jûs ar uzlabotu Dokumenta versiju.

4. MODIFIKÂCIJAS

Jûs varat kopçt un izplatît Dokumenta Modificçtu Versiju saskaòâ ar augstâkesoðajiem 2. un 3. daïas noteikumiem, ja jûs publicçjat Modificçto Versiju precîzi zem ðîs Licences, Modificçtajai Versijai pildot to paðu lomu, ko Dokumentam, tâdçjâdi licecçjot Modificçtas Versijas izplatîðanu un modificçðanu ikvienam, kuram pieder tâs kopija. Papildus Modificçtajâ Versijâ jums jâpaveic sekojoðais:

  • A. Titullapâ (un vâkos, ja tâdi ir) lietojiet atðíirîgu nosaukumu no tâ, kâds ir Dokumentam un tâ iepriekðçjâm versijâm (kurâm bûtu, ja tâdas ir bijuðas, jâbût norâdîtâm Dokumenta Vçstures paragrâfâ). Jûs variet lietot to paðu nosaukumu, kâds bijies iepriekðçjâ versijâ, ja tâs versijas oriìinâla izdevçjs dod tam atïauju.
  • B. Sarindojiet Titullapas sarakstâ kâ autorus vienu vai vairâkas personas vai subjektus atbildîgus par Modificçtâs Versijas izmaiòu autorîbu kopâ ar vismaz pieciem Dokumenta pamatautoriem (visiem tâ pamatautoriem, ja tam to ir mazâk par pieciem).
  • C. Norâdiet Modificçtâs Versijas Titullapâ izdevçja vârdu kâ izdevçju.
  • D. Saglabâjiet visus Dokumenta autortiesîbu paziòojumus.
  • E. Savâm modifikâcijâm pievienojiet atbilstoðu autortiesîbu paziòojumus blakus citiem autortiesîbu paziòojumiem.
  • F. Ievietojiet tûlît aiz autortiesîbu paziòojumiem licences paziòojumu, dodot publisku atïauju lietot Modificçto Versiju saskaòâ ar ðîs Licences noteikumiem, tâdâ formâ, kâ tas parâdîts zemâkesoðajâ Pielikumâ.
  • G. Saglabâjiet tajâ licences paziòojumâ Bezvariantu Paragrâfu un nepiecieðamo Vâka Tekstu pilnu sarakstu, kâds dots Dokumenta licences paziòojumâ.
  • H. Iekïaujiet nemainîtu ðîs Licences kopiju.
  • I. Saglabâjiet paragrâfu ar nosaukumu "Vçsture" un tâ nosaukumu, un pievienojiet tam punktu, kurð ietver vismaz nosaukumu, gadu, Modificçtâs Versijas jaunos autorus un izdevçjus, kâ norâdîts Titullapâ. Ja Dokumentâ nav tada paragrâfa ar nosaukumu "Vçsture", izveidojiet tâdu, norâdot nosaukumu, gadu, Dokumenta autorus un izdevçju, kâ tas redzams tâ Titullapâ, tad pievienojiet punktu, kurð apraksta Modificçto Versiju, kâ norâdîts iepriekðçjâ teikumâ.
  • J. Saglabâjiet tîkla vietu, ja tâda norâdîta Dokumentâ, publiskai pieejai pie Dokumenta Caurspîdîgâs kopijas un tâpat arî Dokumentâ norâdîtâs tîkla vietas iepriekðçjâm versijâm, uz kurâm tas ir bâzçts. Tâs var tikt ievietotas "Vçstures" paragrâfâ. Jûs varat izlaist tâda darba tîkla vietu, kas ticis publicçts vismaz èetrus gadus pirms paða Dokumenta, vai arî ja oriìinâlâs versijas izdevçjs, uz kuru tas atsaucas, dod tam atïauju.
  • K. Ikvienâ paragrâfâ ar nosaukumu "Pateicîbas" vai "Veltîjumi", saglabâjiet paragrâfa nosaukumu, visu tâ saturu un katra lîdzstrâdnieka pateicîbâs un/vai veltîjumos ietverto nozîmes nokrâsu.
  • L. Saglabâjiet visus Dokumenta Bezvariantu Paragrâfus nemainîgus to tekstâ un nosaukumos. Paragrâfu numuri vai tamlîdzîgi netiek uzskatîti kâ daïas no paragrâfu nosaukumiem.
  • M. Izdzçsiet jebkuru paragrâfu ar nosaukumu "Indosamenti". Ðâds paragrâfs nedrîkst tikt iekïauts Modificçtajâ Versijâ.
  • N. Nepârsauciet nevienu eksistçjoðo paragrâfu par "Indosamentu", vai lai konfliktçtu ar jebkuru Bezvariantu Paragrâfa nosaukumu.

Ja Modificçtâ Versija ietver jaunus sâkuma nozîmes paragrâfus vai pielikumus, kas kvalificçjami kâ Sekundârie Paragrâfi un nesatur no dokumenta kopçtu materiâlu, jûs varat pçc savas izvçles daþus vai visus no tiem paragrâfiem padarît par bezvariantu. Lai to izdarîtu, pievienojiet to nosaukumus Modificçtâs Versijas licences paziòojuma Bezvariantu Paragrâfu sarakstam. Ðiem nosaukumiem jâbut atðíirîgiem no jebkuriem citiem paragrâfu nosaukumiem.

Jûs varat pievienot paragrâfu ar nosaukumu "Indosamenti", nodroðinot, ka tas nesaturçs neko citu, kâ tikai jûsu Modificçtâs Versijas daþâdu puðu indosamentus - piemçram, paziòojumus par otreizçju caurskatîðanu vai arî, ka kâda organizâcija tekstu ir apstiprinâjusi kâ autoritatîvi noteiktu standartu.

Jûs varat pievienot fragmentu lîdz pieciem vârdiem kâ Pirmâ-Vâka Tekstu, un fragmentu lîdz 25 vârdiem kâ Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Tekstu Modificçtâs Versijas Vâku Tekstu saraksta beigâs. Tikai vienu Pirmâ-Vâka Teksta un vienu Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Teksta fragmentu var pievienot (vai noslçdzot vienoðanos) jebkurð subjekts. Ja Dokuments jau ietver vâka tekstu tam paðam vâkam, kuru iepriekð pievienojât jûs vai ar noslçgto vienoðanâs tas pats subjekts, kuru jûs pârstâvat, jûs nevarat pievienot citu; bçt jûs varat veco apmainît, saòemot skaidri izteiktu atïauju no iepriekðçjâ izdevçja, kas pievienoja veco.

Dokumenta autors(i) un izdevçjs(i) saskaòâ ar ðo Licenci nedod atïauju lietot viòu vârdus reklâmai vai lai aizstâvçtu vai norâdîtu uz Modificçtâs Versijas indosamentu.

5. DOKUMENTU APVIENOÐANA

Jûs varat apvienot Dokumentu ar citiem dokumentiem, kuri izlaisti zem ðîs Licences, saskaòâ ar augstâkesoðâ 4. nodaïas noteikumiem par modificçtajâm versijâm, nodroðinot, ka jûs iekïaujat visu Bezvariantu Paragrâfu apvienojumu no visiem oriìinâlajiem dokumentiem nemainîtu un norâdiet tos visus kâ Bezvariantu Paragrâfus sava apvienotâ darba licences paziòojumâ.

Apvienotajam darbam jâsatur tikai viena ðîs Licences kopija, un vairâki identiski Bezvariantu Paragrâfi var tikt apmainîti ar vienu to kopiju. Ja ir vairâki Bezvariantu paragrâfi ar tâdu paðu nosaukumu, bet atðíirîgu saturu, padariet katra ðâda paragrâfa nosaukumu unikâlu, pievienojot tâ beigâs iekavâs, ja zinâms, oriìinâla autora vai izdevçja vârdu vai arî unikâlu skaitli. Izdariet tâs paðas korekcijas paragrâfu nosaukumos Bezvariantu Paragrâfu sarakstâ apvienotâ darba licences paziòojumâ.

Apvienojumâ jums jâapvieno visi paragrâfi ar nosaukumu "Vçsture" daþâdajos oriìinâlajos dokumentos, noformçjot tos vienâ paragrâfâ ar nosaukumu "Vçsture"; tâpat apvienojiet visus paragrâfus ar nosaukumu "Pateicîbas" un visus paragrâfus ar nosaukumu "Veltîjumi". Jums jâizdzçð visi paragrâfi ar nosaukumu "Indosaments".

6. DOKUMENTU KOLEKCIJAS

Jûs varat izveidot Dokumenta un citu dokumentu, kuri izlaisti zem ðîs Licences, saturoðu kolekciju un aizstât individuâlâs ðîs Licences kopijas daþâdajos dokumentos ar vienu tâs kopiju, kas iekïauta kolekcijâ, nodroðinot, ka jûs visâdâ ziòâ sekojat ðîs Licences noteikumiem par katra dokumenta burtisku kopçðanu.

Jûs varat atdalît vienu dokumentu no ðâdas kolekcijas un izplatît to individuâli saskaòâ ar ðo Licenci, nodroðinot, ka jûs ievietojiet ðîs Licences kopiju atdalîtajâ dokumentâ un visâdâ ziòâ sekojiet ðai Licencei attiecîbâ uz tâ dokumenta burtisku kopçðanu.

7. APKOPOJUMS AR NEATKARÎGIEM DARBIEM

Dokumenta vai tâ atvasinâjumu kompilâcija ar citiem atseviðíiem un neatkarîgiem dokumentiem vai darbiem atmiòas tilpnç vai izplatâmajâ medijâ kopumâ neskaitâs kâ Dokumenta Modificçta Versija, nodroðinot, ka nekâdas kompilâcijas autortiesîbas kompilâcijai netiek pieprasîtas. Tâda kompilâcija tiek saukta par "apkopojumu", un ðî Licence neattiecas uz citiem paðietvertajiem darbiem, kuri iekïauti kopâ ar Dokumentu, tikai dçï tâ, ka tie tâdçjâdi ir apkopoti, ja tie paði par sevi nav no Dokumenta atvasinâtie darbi.

Ja Vâku Tekstu prasîbas 3. nodaïâ ir attiecinâmas uz ðîm Dokumenta kopijâm, tad, ja Dokuments ir mazâk kâ viena ceturtdaïa no visa apkopojuma, Dokumenta Vâka Teksti var tikt novietoti uz vâkiem, kuri apkopojumâ iekïauj tikai paðu Dokumentu. Citâdi tiem jâparâdâs uz visa apkopojuma apkârtçjiem vâkiem.

8. TULKOJUMS

Tulkojums tiek uzskatîts kâ sava veida modificçjums, tâpçc jûs varat izplatît Dokumenta tulkojumus saskaòâ ar 4. nodaïas noteikumiem. Bezvariantu Paragrâfu aizstâðanai ar to tulkojumiem nepiecieðama îpaða atïauja no to autortiesîbu turçtâjiem, bet jûs varat iekïaut daþu vai visu Bezvariantu Paragrâfu tulkojumus papildus to Bezvariantu Paragrâfu oriìinâlajâm versijâm. Jûs varat iekïaut ðîs Licences tulkojumu, nodroðinot, ka jûs iekïaujat arî ðîs Licences Angliko versiju. Nesakritîbu gadîjumâ starp tulkojumu un oriìinâlo Anglisko ðîs Licences versiju jâvadâs pçc oriìinâlâs Angliskâs versijas.

9. IZBEIGÐANÂS

Jûs nedrîkstat kopçt, modificçt, sublicencçt vai izplatît Dokumentu savâdâk, kâ noteikts ðajâ Licencç. Jebkurð cits mçìinâjums kopçt, modificçt, sublicencçt vai izplatît Dokumentu zaudç spçku un automâtiski izbeidz jûsu tiesîbas saskaòâ ar ðo Licenci. Taèu pusçm, kuras saòçmuðas kopijas vai tiesîbas no jums saskaòâ ar ðo Licenci, viòu licences neizbeigsies tik ilgi, kamçr ðîs puses darbosies pilnîgâ saskaòâ ar tâm.

10. TURPMÂKIE ÐÎS LICENCES PÂRSTRÂDÂTIE IZDEVUMI

Brîvâs Programmatûras Fonds laiku pa laikam var publicçt jaunas, pârstrâdâtas GNU Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licences versijas. Ðâdas jaunâs versijas pçc bûtîbas bûs lîdzîgas paðreizçjajai versija, bet detaïas var atðíirties, lai noregulçtu jaunâs problçmas vai nepilnîbas. Apskati http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Katrai Licences versijai tiek pieðíirts atðíirîgs versijas numurs. Ja Dokuments norâda, ka uz to attiecas noteikta Licences versija "vai jebkura vçlâka versija", jums ir izvçle sekot nosacîjumiem un noteikumiem tajâ noteiktajâ versijâ vai arî jebkurâ vçlâkâ versijâ, kuru publicçjis (ne kâ projektu) Brîvâs Programmatûras Fonds. Ja Dokuments nenorâda Licences versijas numuru, jûs varat izvçlçties jebkuru versiju, ko jebkad publicçjies (ne kâ projektu) Brîvâs Programmatûras Fonds.

ADDENDUM: Kâ lietot ðo Licenci jûsu dokumentos

Lai lietotu ðo Licenci Dokumentâ, kuru jûs esat uzrakstîjis, iekïaujiet dokumentâ Licences kopiju un ievietojiet sekojoðos autortiesîbu un licences paziòojumus tieði pçc titullapas:

Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

Autortiesîbas (c)  GADS  JÛSU VÂRDS.
Tiek dota atïauja kopçt, izplatît un/vai modificçt ðo dokumentu saskaòâ 
ar GNU Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licences, Versijas 1.1 vai jebkuras vçlâkas
versijas, kuru publicçjis Brîvâs Programmatûras Fonds, nosacîjumiem;
ar ðâdiem Bezvariantu Paragrâfiem NORÂDI TO NOSAUKUMUS, ar ðâdiem 
Pirmâ-Vâka Tekstiem NORÂDI un ar ðâdiem Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Tekstiem NORÂDI.
Licences kopija ir iekïauta paragrâfâ ar nosaukumu "GNU
Brîvâs Dokumentâcijas Licence".

Ja jums nav Bezvariantu Paragrâfu, rakstiet "bez Bezvariantu Paragrâfiem" tâ vietâ, lai norâdîtu, kuri ir bezvariantu. Ja jums nav Pirmâ-Vâka Tekstu, rakstiet "bez Pirmâ-Vâka Tekstiem" "ar ðâdiem Pirmâ-Vâka Tekstiem NORÂDI" vietâ; tâpat attiecîgi arî par Aizmugurçjâ-Vâka Tekstiem.

Ja jûsu dokuments satur sareþìîtâkus programmas koda piemçrus, mçs rekomendçjam izlaist ðos piemçrus paralçli zem brîvâs programmatûras licences pçc jûsu izvçles, tâdas kâ GNU Vispârçjâs Publiskâs Licences, lai ïautu viòiem lietot brîvo programmatûru.


8. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  • A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  • B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
  • C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
  • D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  • E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  • F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  • G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  • H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  • I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  • J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  • K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
  • L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  • M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
  • N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.


 

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