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swapoff.2

SWAPON

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
Updated: 2007-06-22
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

swapon, swapoff - start/stop swapping to file/device  

SYNOPSIS

#include <unistd.h>
#include <asm/page.h> /* to find PAGE_SIZE */
#include <sys/swap.h>

int swapon(const char *path, int swapflags);
int swapoff(const char *path);  

DESCRIPTION

swapon() sets the swap area to the file or block device specified by path. swapoff() stops swapping to the file or block device specified by path.

swapon() takes a swapflags argument. If swapflags has the SWAP_FLAG_PREFER bit turned on, the new swap area will have a higher priority than default. The priority is encoded within swapflags as:

(prio << SWAP_FLAG_PRIO_SHIFT) & SWAP_FLAG_PRIO_MASK

These functions may only be used by a privileged process (one having the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability).  

Priority

Each swap area has a priority, either high or low. The default priority is low. Within the low-priority areas, newer areas are even lower priority than older areas.

All priorities set with swapflags are high-priority, higher than default. They may have any non-negative value chosen by the caller. Higher numbers mean higher priority.

Swap pages are allocated from areas in priority order, highest priority first. For areas with different priorities, a higher-priority area is exhausted before using a lower-priority area. If two or more areas have the same priority, and it is the highest priority available, pages are allocated on a round-robin basis between them.

As of Linux 1.3.6, the kernel usually follows these rules, but there are exceptions.  

RETURN VALUE

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.  

ERRORS

EBUSY
(for swapon()) The specified path is already being used as a swap area.
EINVAL
The file path exists, but refers neither to a regular file nor to a block device; or, for swapon(), the indicated path does not contain a valid swap signature or resides on an in-memory file system like tmpfs; or, for swapoff(), path is not currently a swap area.
ENFILE
The system limit on the total number of open files has been reached.
ENOENT
The file path does not exist.
ENOMEM
The system has insufficient memory to start swapping.
EPERM
The caller does not have the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability. Alternatively, the maximum number of swap files are already in use; see NOTES below.
 

CONFORMING TO

These functions are Linux-specific and should not be used in programs intended to be portable. The second swapflags argument was introduced in Linux 1.3.2.  

NOTES

The partition or path must be prepared with mkswap(8).

There is an upper limit on the number of swap files that may be used, defined by the kernel constant MAX_SWAPFILES. Before kernel 2.4.10, MAX_SWAPFILES has the value 8; since kernel 2.4.10, it has the value 32. Since kernel 2.6.18, the limit is decreased by 2 (thus: 30) if the kernel is built with the CONFIG_MIGRATION option (which reserves two swap table entries for the page migration features of mbind(2) and migrate_pages(2)).  

SEE ALSO

mkswap(8), swapoff(8), swapon(8)  

COLOPHON

This page is part of release 3.21 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Priority
RETURN VALUE
ERRORS
CONFORMING TO
NOTES
SEE ALSO
COLOPHON

 

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