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matherr.3

MATHERR

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (3)
Updated: 2008-07-21
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

matherr - SVID math library exception handling  

SYNOPSIS

#define _SVID_SOURCE
#include <math.h>

int matherr(struct exception *exc);

extern _LIB_VERSION_TYPE _LIB_VERSION;

Link with -lm.  

DESCRIPTION

The System V Interface Definition (SVID) specifies that various math functions should invoke a function called matherr() if a math exception is detected. This function is called before the math function returns; after matherr() returns, the system then returns to the math function, which in turn returns to the caller.

The matherr() mechanism is supported by glibc, but is now obsolete: new applications should use the techniques described in math_error(7) and fenv(3). This page documents the glibc matherr() mechanism as an aid for maintaining and porting older applications.

To employ matherr(), the programmer must define the _SVID_SOURCE feature test macro, and assign the value _SVID_ to the external variable _LIB_VERSION.

The system provides a default version of matherr(). This version does nothing, and returns zero (see below for the significance of this). The default matherr() can be overridden by a programmer-defined version, which will be invoked when an exception occurs. The function is invoked with one argument, a pointer to an exception structure, defined as follows:

struct exception {
    int    type;      /* Exception type */
    char  *name;      /* Name of function causing exception */
    double arg1;      /* 1st argument to function */
    double arg2;      /* 2nd argument to function */
    double retval;    /* Function return value */
}

The type field has one of the following values:

DOMAIN
A domain error occurred (the function argument was outside the range for which the function is defined). The return value depends on the function; errno is set to EDOM.
SING
A pole error occurred (the function result is an infinity). The return value in most cases is HUGE (the largest single precision floating-point number), appropriately signed. In most cases, errno is set to EDOM.
OVERFLOW
An overflow occurred. In most cases, the value HUGE is returned, and errno is set to ERANGE.
UNDERFLOW
An underflow occurred. 0.0 is returned, and errno is set to ERANGE.
TLOSS
Total loss of significance. 0.0 is returned, and errno is set to ERANGE.
PLOSS
Partial loss of significance. This value is unused on glibc (and many other systems).

The arg1 and arg2 fields are the arguments supplied to the function (arg2 is undefined for functions that take only one argument).

The retval field specifies the return value that the math function will return to its caller. The programmer-defined matherr() can modify this field to change the return value of the math function.

If the matherr() function returns zero, then the system sets errno as described above, and may print an error message on standard error (see below).

If the matherr() function returns a non-zero value, then the system does not set errno, and doesn't print an error message.  

Math functions that employ matherr()

The table below lists the functions and circumstances in which matherr() is called. The "Type" column indicates the value assigned to exc->type when calling matherr(). The "Result" column is the default return value assigned to exc->retval.

The "Msg?" and "errno" columns describe the default behavior if matherr() returns zero. If the "Msg?" columns contains "y", then the system prints an error message on standard error.

The table uses the following notations and abbreviations:


x        first argument to function
y        second argument to function
fin      finite value for argument
neg      negative value for argument
int      integral value for argument
o/f      result overflowed
u/f      result underflowed
|x|      absolute value of x
X_TLOSS  is a constant defined in <math.h>
FunctionTypeResultMsg?errno
acos(|x|>1)DOMAINHUGEyEDOM
asin(|x|>1)DOMAINHUGEyEDOM
atan2(0,0)DOMAINHUGEyEDOM
acosh(x<1)DOMAINNANyEDOM atanh(|x|>1)DOMAINNANyEDOM atanh(|x|==1)SING(x>0.0)?yEDOM   HUGE_VAL :
  -HUGE_VAL
cosh(fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
sinh(fin) o/fOVERFLOW(x>0.0) ?nERANGE
  HUGE : -HUGE
sqrt(x<0)DOMAIN0.0yEDOM
hypot(fin,fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
exp(fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
exp(fin) u/fUNDERFLOW0.0nERANGE
exp2(fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
exp2(fin) u/fUNDERFLOW0.0nERANGE
exp10(fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
exp10(fin) u/fUNDERFLOW0.0nERANGE
j0(|x|>X_TLOSS)TLOSS0.0yERANGE
j1(|x|>X_TLOSS)TLOSS0.0yERANGE
jn(|x|>X_TLOSS)TLOSS0.0yERANGE
y0(x>X_TLOSS)TLOSS0.0yERANGE
y1(x>X_TLOSS)TLOSS0.0yERANGE
yn(x>X_TLOSS)TLOSS0.0yERANGE
y0(0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
y0(x<0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
y1(0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
y1(x<0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
yn(n,0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
yn(x<0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
lgamma(fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
lgamma(-int) orSINGHUGEyEDOM
  lgamma(0)
tgamma(fin) o/fOVERFLOWHUGE_VALnERANGE
tgamma(-int)SINGNANyEDOM
tgamma(0)SINGcopysign(yERANGE
  HUGE_VAL,x)
log(0)SING-HUGEyEDOM
log(x<0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
log2(0)SING-HUGEnEDOM
log10(x<0)DOMAIN-HUGEyEDOM
pow(0.0,0.0)DOMAIN0.0yEDOM
pow(x,y) o/fOVERFLOWHUGEnERANGE
pow(x,y) u/fUNDERFLOW0.0nERANGE
pow(NaN,0.0)DOMAINxnEDOM
0**negDOMAIN0.0yEDOM
scalb() o/fOVERFLOW(x>0.0) ?nERANGE
  HUGE_VAL :
  -HUGE_VAL
scalb() u/fUNDERFLOWcopysign(nERANGE
    0.0,x)
fmod(x,0)DOMAINxyEDOM
remainder(x,0)DOMAINNANyEDOM
The example program demonstrates the use of
when calling
The program takes up to three command-line arguments.
The first argument is the floating-point number to be given to
If the optional second argument is provided, then
is set to
so that
is called, and the integer supplied in the
command-line argument is used as the return value from
If the optional third command-line argument is supplied,
then it specifies an alternative return value that
should assign as the return value of the math function.

The following example run, where
is given an argument of 0.0, does not use

errno: Numerical result out of range
x=-inf

In the following run,
is called, and returns 0:

matherr SING exception in log() function

        args:   0.000000, 0.000000


        retval: -340282346638528859811704183484516925440.000000

log: SING error
errno: Numerical argument out of domain
x=-340282346638528859811704183484516925440.000000

The message "log: SING error" was printed by the C library.

In the following run,
is called, and returns a non-zero value:

matherr SING exception in log() function

        args:   0.000000, 0.000000


        retval: -340282346638528859811704183484516925440.000000

x=-340282346638528859811704183484516925440.000000

In this case, the C library did not print a message, and
was not set.

In the following run,
is called, changes the return value of the math function,
and returns a non-zero value:

matherr SING exception in log() function

        args:   0.000000, 0.000000


        retval: -340282346638528859811704183484516925440.000000

x=12345.000000

#define _SVID_SOURCE
#include <errno.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

static int matherr_ret = 0; /* Value that matherr()

                                   should return */

static int change_retval = 0; /* Should matherr() change

                                   function's return value? */

static double new_retval; /* New function return value */

int
matherr(struct exception *exc)
{

    fprintf(stderr, "matherr %s exception in %s() function\n",


           (exc->type == DOMAIN) ?    "DOMAIN" :


           (exc->type == OVERFLOW) ?  "OVERFLOW" :


           (exc->type == UNDERFLOW) ? "UNDERFLOW" :


           (exc->type == SING) ?      "SING" :


           (exc->type == TLOSS) ?     "TLOSS" :


           (exc->type == PLOSS) ?     "PLOSS" : "???",


            exc->name);


    fprintf(stderr, "        args:   %f, %f\n",


            exc->arg1, exc->arg2);


    fprintf(stderr, "        retval: %f\n", exc->retval);



    if (change_retval)


        exc->retval = new_retval;



    return matherr_ret;

}

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{

    double x;



    if (argc < 2) {


        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <argval>"


                " [<matherr-ret> [<new-func-retval>]]\n", argv[0]);


        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);


    }



    if (argc > 2) {


        _LIB_VERSION = _SVID_;


        matherr_ret = atoi(argv[2]);


    }



    if (argc > 3) {


        change_retval = 1;


        new_retval = atof(argv[3]);


    }



    x = log(atof(argv[1]));


    if (errno != 0)


        perror("errno");



    printf("x=%f\n", x);


    exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);

}
This page is part of release 3.21 of the Linux
project.
A description of the project,
and information about reporting bugs,
can be found at
http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.




 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Math functions that employ matherr()

 

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