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USB Display Technology Heading for Linux

Linux users should soon be able to use USB-connected monitors that incorporate DisplayLink's chips.
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Plugging Away: DIY File Server Using Samba

"That sounds like something I could have used in my office," Dad exclaimed.

I had just described mating a Plug Computer with a 500 GB Western Digital USB external disk and putting in on my LAN. Servers and support were difficult, back in the days when Dad had his small business. We've certainly come a long way.

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New Revision C of Beagle Board Released

An updated Beagle Board doubles the memory of the diminutive yet powerful, GPL'd, ARM based board...
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Plugging Ahead: DIY Basic Apache/PHP Web Server

I've been working with the Arduino micro-controller for a couple of years and have been seeking an inexpensive, compact solution for connecting it to my network.

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Using Linux Utilities to Avoid Your Next IT Catastrophe

Perhaps this has happened to you--you're on the phone, your hands have been three feet from your keyboard for the past half hour, and your system is idle, when suddenly the computer reboots or the screen goes black and locks up. You may wiggle the mouse a bit thinking this is some kind of screen saver, but that doesn't seem to be the case. The first time this happens you brush it off--maybe it was a tiny power surge or a software bug. Occasional clicking can be heard from your hard drive at times, the same sounds it makes when you first turn it on. Your RAID controller or software may say your drives are out of sync, or you may occasionally experience data loss. You may wonder why your drive’s built-in failure detection technology hasn’t kicked in to warn you that something’s wrong.

If you think your computer is just dying of old age and you'll need to spend hundreds or thousands of dollars to replace it, you're not alone, but the solution may be much simpler. All of these are very typical symptoms of a system power supply that is occasionally not delivering enough power to its components. Replacing this part will cost anywhere from $50-$200 on a desktop, far cheaper than replacing the entire machine.

Since X86 hardware is designed to be inexpensive commodity hardware, your computer was expected to last no more than five years, but some components may need to be replaced earlier, much like the original battery of your car won’t last 100,000 miles. If you’re using X86 hardware in a data center where you can’t hear these symptoms or may not catch the screen going black, it can be hard to track down a problem like this. Fortunately, there are tools available to detect some of the most common hardware failures. I’ll review these in the order they’re most likely to fail in a system and suggest some projects that can address these problems.

Power Supply

I’ve had almost 20 years of experience doing desktop support, and I’ve seen more power supplies fail than any other part in the system. Often a power supply failure is misdiagnosed as a hard drive, processor, memory, or video failure. The MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) rating on a power supply will tell you how long it’s designed to last, and most OEMs build systems with the lowest MTBF they can get away with (it’s cheap, and they pass along the savings to their buyers). The general rule of thumb is that if you start to see voltages dropping more than approx 10% below spec (e.g., down to 10.8V from what’s supposed to be 12V), it’s starting to fail. Devices experience “brownout” conditions, and e.g. a hard drive may not finish a write operation (causing data to be lost), a processor may skip an instruction and execute a program incorrectly, or a video card may reset its resolution, causing the monitor to go blank and not return.

The lm_sensors project will tell you about power supply voltage information, but the amount of data available varies depending on what chips are on the motherboard and the availability of open specifications to build a complete driver for the chip.

Hard Drive

Most modern hard drives contain Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology or SMART. This technology can detect impending failure due to normal wear and tear. Not all failures can be predicted using this technology but is does provide a helpful hint when the drive knows it’s dying. That’s the most automated way to detect a failure, but it’s not the only method.

The smartmontools project will read SMART warnings and is compatible with Linux, but also Darwin (Mac OS X), FreeBSD, and even Windows. If you’re familiar with smartsuite you’ll be happy to know that this project was derived from that (older) project.

What goes in must come out, so you can also stress test the hard drive to determine if it’s failing before all of the data disappears. This test is not automated, and will affect performance, so it’s best to take the machine out of service before doing this kind of check. The badblocks utility in the e2fsprogs package is one such utility.

As most Linux gurus know, fsck (file system check) commands will check and repair most popular file systems.

WARNING: When hard drives start to fail, they fail fast, often because debris is being dragged across the platter (which spins at a very high speed). When you find your hard drive has reached that point, boot with another disk (e.g., a Linux LiveCD) to get in, retrieve your data, and get out ASAP. It’s like rescuing someone from a burning building – the longer you’re inside, the less successful your rescue attempt will be.

Processor and Chipsets

The leading cause of death for processors and chipsets is heat. Until I was employed by a chip company, I didn’t even realize the importance of thermal tape, thermal paste/grease between the processor and the cooling solution (commonly a heatsink with fan), nor how easily the heat-conductive properties of each are ruined. Most modern Intel and AMD processors will slow down and reduce their power consumption if they get too hot so as not to permanently damage the processor, and some motherboards will shut off the machine and flash an LED if they detect a heat problem, however consistent low-grade “fevers” may still destroy a processor without triggering these mechanisms. The lm_sensors project was designed to catch this sort of problem, but all too often it relies on the BIOS to contain correct values for the temperature limits. Many OEMs and motherboard manufacturers don’t bother to populate the field properly. If the upper limit is below “absolute zero” temperature or above the melting point of steel, you can have lm_sensors override that setting and alert you only if it gets above a temperature you specify (check the processor manufacturer’s web site for per-model expected thermal operating limits).

Memory

Like a hard drive, what goes in must come out. If you store “Mary had a little lamb” and you read back out “Little Red Riding Hood” from the same memory address, your memory chips are not doing their job. Unfortunately, memory problems are rarely that obvious, and instead may show as a single intermittently incorrect bit.

The memtester application will stress test your memory chips and report problems. Figuring out which DIMM is bad can be challenging, especially since many motherboards interlace the memory addresses across chips to increase performance.

Another popular method using dd and md5sum is described at here but it’s not as thorough as memtester, so utilities like memtester are preferred.

Ongoing Maintenance

Your Linux system already uses crond to schedule system maintenance tasks such as log cleanup. For system health checks that will impact performance temporarily, use your favorite crond setup utility (my administrator control panels include a system maintenance task scheduler function which may not be called crond on the outside, but is still crond inside) to schedule these to run when your server will not be in use. Weekly is best for things like hard drive and memory tests. As a tip, many IT administrators set their servers to send SMS messages to their cell phones if they find something that’s terribly wrong.

Other tools such as smartmon and lm_sensors can and should be run constantly so that problems can be caught promptly. Their performance impact is minimal.

Preventative Replacement

Like a car, your computers will eventually reach a point that one thing after another goes wrong. At that point, it’s time to replace the computer. There are two ways to handle an aging car: keep it together with silly putty and band-aids until you’ve been stranded roadside a few times and then buy a new one and pay it off over the next 5 years, or budget to get a new one when you expect it to fail and replace it before you are stranded. Computers are the same way. If you don’t want data loss and downtime, budget with that in mind, whether it’s your personal computer or your IT data center.

OEM power supplies last about three years. Hard drives last 4-6 years. Everything else is rated for about five years.

Backups and Failover

Many tools are available to automatically backup hard drives and relocate a process as soon as a failure occurs. Since there are many types of failover solutions, I won’t go into that much, though I will list a few worth looking into:

  • rsync is popular for synchronizing storage, though most IT administrators prefer a full commercial SAN solution to protect their data
  • The linux-ha project provides high-availability cluster tools to keep mission-critical resources online by managing a failover machine
  • For virtualized servers, tools such as VMWare‚Äôs ‚ÄúVMotion‚Äù and Xen‚Äôs ‚Äúlive migration‚Äù feature can shift the entire stack, OS and all, to another machine extremely quickly

If you implement all of these suggestions, you might never again have unscheduled downtime. You can take credit for this during your next performance review; I won’t mind. ;-)

 

Atom makes the leap into servers

Super Micro is promoting the use of Intel's Atom processor in servers. The "X7SLA" motherboard is designed to be mounted in a 1U rack (left) or minitower chassis, offers single or dual gigabit Ethernet ports, and includes four SATA ports with RAID support, Super Micro says.
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