Home Linux Community Community Blogs

Community Blogs

openSUSE Weekly News 175 is out!

We are pleased to announce the new openSUSE Weekly News Issue 175!

In this Issue:

  • openSUSE 11.2 has reached end of SUSE support - 11.2 Evergreen goes on!
  • Sebastian Kügler: What’s new in Plasma Active?
  • Thanasis Rous: Medical Report
  • ZDNet/Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols: Novell will continue to support LibreOffice
  • and many more ...

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad:

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker:

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker:

Older content can be found there.

Flattr this


For the sake of users

There's been a lot of talk lately about GNOME 3 and Unity - when I take a look at my news feeds, it looks like there is a storm in the Linux world. It got me thinking about desktop environments and user interfaces in general.

Read more... Comment (0)

My first blog about Gentoo

Gentoo is not easy to use, but once you get familiar with it, you will fall in love with it.


building celestia QT4

building Celestia is normally very easy .


The recommended way has been to go grab a copy from SVN and build the standard GTK or Gnome or older kde3 (QT3) .Now seeing as kde3 is , for the most part, no more and qt4 is becoming the DEFAULT across all 3 major platforms . A qt 4 build is now needed .

BUT That is easier said than done qt4 is still a bit "experimental " and still has a few bugs to work out . not everything 100% working and the auto tools ?? well it basically is a 'makefile' project using QT-Creator ( some things need to be done by hand .
 The *.pro file needs to have a minor edit , or you install some software where it is listed in the pro file .

The config.h is NOT made and is needed --an oops & bug , being worked on  -- some system values need setting using the config.h

So to begin make sure software is installed warning  ( some are VERY familiar with this - most do not know about this ) the .run REPLACES mesa system files and headers that celestia DOSE need to match mesa that is installed .
so if you use the .run driver you need reinstall the correct GL.h ( -dev or -devel )
for fedora that is " yum reinstall mesa-devel " after you install the .run after the kernel update ---- consult your own distro . on this issue ----

read the README and INSTALL install all the source packages needed for png,lua, ogg ,...

Install SPICE
so you can use the spacecraft pointing and location kernels -- this is optional BUT NICE to use a link to using spice for Cassini at Saturn
and my update to it on the second page . spice is used by the cassini imaging team

the current SVN pull "5162" builds using gcc 4.5 and png14 ( will also build using png12)  "  svn co celestia  "

copy celestia/celestia to your WORKING directory !!!!!!!!!! I build code on a labeled DATA partition to keep things separate from the OS /DATA/src/QTcelestia -- or your install folder ( there is NO install script !) Now run "  autoreconf -v -i   "
as normal for svn the missing "config.h" and system variables for the basic file i DO use the qt3 configure option to make it BUT this will sill have to be edited " ./configure --with-kde " there will be errors but seeing as all you need is ONE file . Add to the "config.h"  the install folder YOU ARE GOING TO USE this is VERY important so celestia can find it's config file !!!!
if you do not there WILL be a start error !!!
-- copy/paste #######################

#define CELESTIA_DATA_DIR "/Your/install/folder"
#define CONFIG_DATA_DIR "/Your/install/folder"


i use -- CELESTIA_DATA_DIR "/usr/opt/Qtcelestia"

Now almost there edit the pro file in the src folder celestia/src/ near the end is ###########

unix {
    INCLUDEPATH += /usr/local/cspice/include
    LIBS += -ljpeg -llua  /usr/local/cspice/lib/cspice.a

edit that to reflect YOUR system ready to build fire up QT Creator use "open an existing project" navigate to celestia/src/ and click on " build all " ( debug is the DEFAULT ) if there are no errors then build the release -- there will be some warnings  about 8 -- copy the contents of the build folder to your install folder ( unless you built in place ) --these are the required / needed files celestia-qt4




now make a "celestia.desktop " file - Gnome or a desktop launcher file ( if you did NOT add the #define's to "config.h" - the launcher WILL NOT WORK !!! )


openSUSE Weekly News 174 is out!

We are pleased to announce our new openSUSE Weekly News Issue 174.

In this Issue:

  • Alex Eftimie: GSoC 2011: PackageKit and AppStream integration for Software Center
  • Sebastian Kügler: Plasma Active at Tokamak 5
  • openSUSE Ambassadors are rocking all over the world
  • h-online/Thorsten Leemhuis: Kernel Log: Coming in 2.6.39 (Part 3) - Architecture and infrastructure
  • and many more ...

You can download it there:

We hope you enjoy the reading :-)

If you want to help us collecting interesting articles for the openSUSE Weekly News, so you can all your stuff into our new ietherpad:

Found Bugs? Please place it in our Bugtracker:

Features, Ideas and Improvements can placed in our Featuretracker:

Older content can be found there.

Flattr this


Using Ubuntu for Work/Play

Having been a student by day filmmaker by night.Ubuntu has really helped my quite a real bit.

Cinelerra,Kdenlive etc have helped me in many way for my film making process.As for being a student, Open Office Org has helped me create professional looking documents,letters(excuse letters) and even help build a website with HTML.

Being a filmmaker i do eventually need to do sound and video editing of some sort.Which brings me to my next question.

How do i incorporate Linux(Ubuntu) into my hobby?

Ubuntu is open source which enables me to save on licensing fees,extra add-ons,expensive new computers for just the new software.This was how it all started my tech guru had an old laptop from the office and had the Windows XP for his work purposes it had all sorts of programmes on it Windows Server to access his virtual office and his infrastructure.the old laptop had started to fail with Windows in it and all the high robust,complicated applications in it functioning,he had gotten a new laptop form the company to replace the failing one.He had use the old one for his personal purpose like watching his comedy shows and doing some mobile surfing at home or even on our holiday in New Zealand.Running on Ubuntu 8.10 it functioned well enough over my expectation.Back then i was living under a rock doing only with what i have and not sourcing out for better methods to do things like Video Editing.I had then remembered my guru sharing with me Ubuntu.

I had picked up Ubuntu again starting with 10.04 recently late last year,trying numerous times to make a download of Ubuntu from my computer and receiving the . ISO image i gave up! i went to and ordered my copy of the Live CD it came just about about 8 weeks ago and i have given it numerous test drives without fail having to please me each time i use it. 

My decision was final i had booted Ubuntu alongside my usual Win7 so each time i booted up my computer i would go to the BIOS menu and choose to boot for my other hard drive which had me a chuckle each time i boot up as it always remind me of my past living under a Cinelerra, OpenOffice. Org all in my computer each and user friendly.

As for my homework i'm using Open Office to type out essays,really does serve a purpose in my work both in scripting and in homework.

I took the option of using dual booting in my computers used all ubuntu and win combine


Now have you tried your fair share of Ubuntu!?!





Create a custom distro: Choice of the right base (P.2)

previous page...



This is one of my favorite distribution for servers, when I don't have enough time for a fine tuned HW optimization (Gentoo) or when I don't have so much time to spend on the installation and configuration process (Arch) I usually adopt Debian. With Debian you can do some sort of “dumb/quick installation” (Debian is not dumb!), the installation process gives you a working machine in half an hour. That's what I'm definitively using it on production servers, rock-stable, optimized and well supported. ….but, I've tried to install it in an USB stick with space constraints, read-only root partition and some customizations, you can do it but someone else gives you a better result (read below). I've tried to apply Linux Live-CD scripts for my personal read-only installation, you can do it but I've had few issues, mostly on:

  • startup scripts optimization, I'd like to install packages and modify startup scripts later. If you'd like to have a “prebuilt-template” to apply to it you've to manually add everything later on

  • Debian is not aimed to a live USB/CD environment, it's made for something else (servers for example)

  • root partition is not compressed (knoppix style), you may do it externally. Disk space for a tipical installation doesn't fit under 100Mb. Now “minimal” Debian installation is not so minimal

  • You may do something on a typical installation and then reduce it later on but it's not an automated system and you need to reproduce each step manually every time you need to change something

Sadly this is one of my favorite choices but this is not the right kind of solution to my own problem



I've not against SuSe, it even has the best tool for building a tailored distro, everything on the web in the cloud, SuSe studio is an impressive tool but:

  • Like Debian their minimal installation is not so minimal, you cannot go under 200Mb

  • You may do customizations on it after the installation but what I'm trying to do is a read-only image

  • Cloud computing is fine for me but I prefer to have my own virtual machines in my own environment and waste my own disk as often as possible, what happens if I don't renew my account or if I don't log often in their website ? What happens if I'd like to work on my own machine and I don't have an Internet connection ?

  • I want to apply patches or modify init scripts for my installation, after package selection but before installation

I like it but as Debian I think it's not aimed to Live-CD/USB creation


if you're still reading this article...

Relax, I don't want to write a review about every possible Linux distribution available in our planet, I've really made these tests before choosing the right one (the one I'm most comfortable with in this particular situation). I'd just like to tell you a simple thing:

“every distribution was made for a specific task, you may do everything you want with it but there're easier approaches to your problem every time you need something different, an easy approach with a specialized distribution is always preferred if it doesn't compromise stability, speed and optimization“

I've really spent a lot of time to find out possible solutions with all these listed distros and I've finally decided to use a distro for their unique characteristics. My final choice for this particular problem is : SLAX. If you're still reading this article and you're still interested in my decision here are topics achieved with it:

  • I was using LiveCD Scripts (they're very popular) with LFS and Gentoo, I think this the best approach and the simple one

  • You don't need to deal with targeted/specialized packages (legacy distro packages: gentoo, ubuntu, fedora, ...) to build a live appliance, you've a live distro aimed built around live CD creation

  • you've a modular approach, this is tipical in a live cd environment, on slax there's just one required package: “The Core” (~50Mb), everything else is an option

  • You've AUFS ( ready to use and it's already there

  • Every “module” (a package) is compressed and easily pluggable into your own personal system, you just need to copy it into the “modules” directory

  • You may create your own LiveCDs or LiveUSBs in just few minutes

  • Documentation is simple

  • You may add your own scripts or alter final file system structure just by adding files to the final root dir. This is the thing I love more, SLAX is using UnionFS approach to make live customizations. If you don't know UnionFS take a look at, this is one of the biggest benefits when dealing with live distributions

  • It's based on Slackware, that's one of the reasons I've never cited it in the first part of the article. Slackware has a lot benefits for this kind of system but SLAX is really focused on my own system

  • A lot of cool different projects are using it for live cd tools (registry editors, demos, security, auditing, ...)

I was discussing in the forum section of this site about Live CD scripts a month ago with other folks, obviously Slackware addicted guys (:-) Matthew, Eric, … thanks :-) ) were more focused on it, I was already using it but I've always used it as the “Slackware little bro”. I've ran it few times (auditor, …) and used it for a while but I've always left it in a corner.

But after spending weeks with LiveCD scripts ( and other distros (mostly LFS, Gentoo and Debian) I've decided to use them in their “original environment”: SLAX.

It was damn easy to use it, customize a current Slax installation, produce my own USB install, create and port new packages to it. In just half an hour (GCC installation time on Gentoo...) I've created my Slax build station and I was ready to create USB sticks. Everything available from the original Slax environment, easy customizations, minimal footprint (my first install: 80Mb!) and no external tools involved in my process creation. Just a file manager to handle/copy files and few minutes for everything ! That's what I need and this is definitively what I need to finish my appliance.


Where's the code ? Where's the solution ?

System requirements, hardware selection and distribution choice are mandatory sections (even the boring ones) for a project like that, in the next section I'll start with hands on descriptions and I'll start publishing some code involved in this particular project. I've decided to explain my specs with these chapters so I may start a discussion with you about the overall project, I could start my articles with sentences like: “I use Slax to do that” but maybe building a custom Linux distro it's not so appealing if you don't know the reasons and initial requirements


As usual feel free to add your comments or discuss about my choices.


Andrea (Ben) Benini



Previous chapters:
Choosing the hardware
Creating a live distro for target appliance

Next chapters:
Create a custom distro: building the build machine

Create a custom distro: building the first target machine

Building a minimal image



Create a custom distro: Choice of the right base (P.1)


I'm still following base directives for creating a custom live distro for a special appliance, you've certainly read my previous considerations related to hardware and initial planning requirements. For this particular home server I've decided to stay with a common x86 device, power consumption could be a big issue if compared to low power CPU boards (MIPS and ARM devices for example) but at least I've an huge choice and many different Linux distributions.

I've decided to use an Atom based motherboard with an Intel NM10 chipset, an Atom N450 CPU is big enough (even too big...) for my designed tasks but I've decided to install a tailored Linux distro instead of installing a full blown stock distro. If you've read my previous considerations and constraints I'd like to achieve these tasks:

  • No further modifications are needed on this appliance after initial installation

  • I've already decided basic services this appliance should provide to my home network

  • It's not a desktop, there's no mouse, keyboard, screen or whatever, it has to work on a LAN, no direct user interaction

  • It must run unmanaged or without an IT specialist around for a long period, I often spend a lot of time away from where this machine is, I don't have a skilled user and I don't even need it to run this device.

  • It's just a stupid appliance, no frills

  • To avoid HW failures I'd like to reduce breaking parts, no fans, no hard drives, no SDD. This board needs to be attached to a common (and cheaper and easily replaceable) ATX PSU. Again: no moving parts or fan around. I've few power supply units with low specs and low power consumptions, I've just used one of them

  • Hard drives may fail, to replace them easily I've decided to run everything without an hard drive, I've decided to use a cheap and common USB Key as primary root disk. To avoid troubles with cheap USB keys I've decided to use one of them and have at least a backup of it elsewhere, if I need to replace my “main USB root disk” I only need to throw away the bad one and use a new one

  • To avoid troubles with USB sticks and possible breakage in the long term I've decided that my root disk has to be read only, USB sticks are excellent devices when you only need to read them, you may corrupt them easily in the long term if you write data on it (it's still a flash..., it has limited write cycles)

  • It has to be a thin distro so I can use cheap USB sticks, I don't need a 4Gb USB stick just for running an OS with few basic services. In my case I've decided to stay under 128Mb, there are plenty of sticks around with 128/256/512Mb and they're so cheap...

  • I don't want to keep basic distro behavior and I obviously need some customizations on services, networking and some special personal needs

  • I want to build my personal toolchain to be able to reproduce the same image and do more customizations on it

If you've carefully read my specs and you tend to keep a small footprint on tailored machines like me you've probably understood why I haven't even considered to install mainstream distributions like Ubuntu/Fedora Core/Mint/... I'm not against them but these are for a common desktop user and full of unused utilities (even bloatware sometimes...) and not really optimized for my special task so I've started to consider other distros I already use, here are my thoughts:


LFS (Linux From Scratch)

This is definitively my first choice and the approach I prefer with my personal computers, it's not even a distro (it's just a series of books). THIS IS LINUX AND GNU, nothing more. You've the GNU operating system and a Linux kernel, this is the approach (not even a distro) for the definitive geek. You can do everything you want with it: you may customize scripts, dependencies, packages makefiles, your toolchain and build scripts as well. It takes a while (!!!) to compile everything but at the end you have your own Linux system with LSB compliance as well. This is what we all need to use all the time... but.... in this case this is not what I've used, that's why:

  • x86 support for LFS is excellent and the base book is really something to read at least once in a lifetime. I've my own build script (a set of bash scripts and makefiles) to automate the whole process, even with this magical script my installation procedure after some changes takes at least: 6-8 hours for building the base toolchain, 4-6 hours to build my basic system. When you test it or when you make some trials to adjust your internal requirements you may spend a week on it just to make some tests, that's definitively what I don't want to do

  • An LFS installation process gives you a full blown GNU OS with a Linux kernel, installation takes across 300-400 Mb (for a bare bone system) or more probably around 500-600 Mb (samba, httpd server, php, DLNA, torrent, …). You may tweak it with a busybox but it requires extra steps, even binary stripping is required but this is not so easy, you may even cut unnecessary man pages as well as other things (you already have manuals somewhere...). More extra steps, more time to realize the project

  • It's not aimed to be a read only system, you obviously have the Live CD and some scripts but if you tend to recreate your system frequently you need extra time (again), live cd scripts ( are impressive but LFS needs a lot of care

  • There's no automatic HW recognition (it's not so important BTW)

  • Your live image it's not compressed (like knoppix or stuff like that), you may do it because you've “the father of every Linux distro” but again: it requires a lot of extra time

  • UnionFS, and aufs may be attached to it to support some sort of changes in a read-only environment but it's a slow process if you need to implement them


This is my best choice and my first attempt but unfortunately I'll be able to build my own system in a month or maybe more and there are even things I don't even know how to realize. I really appreciate LFS books and it's still one of my favorite “distros” (even if it's not a distro !) but I cannot use it in this moment



I've started with Gentoo in 2000-2001 when it was a young distribution, I was looking for a distribution with these requirements:

  • It has to be really close to LFS approach, in the beginning I've started with it because it was something like “LFS with steroids”: an LFS install with an automated build script

  • I'd like to have a “super-build-and-do-everything-for-me” script to create a running installation without worrying about copying and pasting instructions from the book. I don't want to read the same paragraph 100 times to discover after few hours what kind of instruction I've missed before

  • I've been an happy BSD user and I really love it, one of the best things about BSD is their makefile approach. When you need a program you just need to enter in their package structure, locate your favorite program (just use “find” utility), and install it with make (make clean, make, make install). Even better: you want to upgrade your whole system to current stable BSD ? Just issue “make world” and your machine will upgrade itself and install everything needed (well, it's not so simple but this is the approach). I respect monthly scheduled released distro (6 month for SuSe, Ubuntu, Fedora, …) but I'd like to have “the latest one” just with a simple upgrade command.

  • Gentoo and Arch are rolling update distributions, there's no version vX.xx, there's “the distribution you're using” and “current distribution”, with a simple command you switch from “your old one” to “current”. I really love rolling updates distros

Even more: do you want to make your favorite customizations to every package because you want or don't want that particular feature (doc, man pages, Xorg, Lang, ...) ? Are you looking for a special patch or an optimization for your particular CPU ? Gentoo is the way to go. This is my first distribution and what I use more at work (my main desktop) and at home, it was obvious for me to test it and adapt it to my appliance. But even if I still prefer Gentoo I've discarded it, that's why:

  • If you need to create a system with a limited space (my USB stick) you need to drop portage directory structure and create a system without it. There's a way to do it (read excellent Gentoo docs) but it's not so easy if you want to make frequent changes to it or do minor upgrades

  • You need a “build machine” with a full Gentoo installation and a special portage structure for creating your target machine, cross compilation it's one of the Gentoo specialties but it's not aimed to machine creation

  • There are tools like Catalyst or tools/docs for creating “stage 4” steps but these are a little bit cryptic and sometimes aimed to create other Gentoo tipical installations, most of the times you've excellent results when you need to deal with a LiveCD but it takes a lot of time. I've used catalyst a while but it's not so easy to create a live image under 200Mb ! It requires lots more

  • There are Live-USB methods, something with AUFS or UnionFS but it requires a lot to reproduce them all and there's no root disk compression (like Knoppix for example). You obviously may do it but it's like LFS, it takes a lot of time to do it

  • If you upgrade your “build station” and “toolchain” frequently you always need to make few adjustments to the build system if you've modified startup scripts for your target machine

Sadly I've discarded it due to some problems: available time, overall image size, readonly unavailability and live cd/usb compression. It's still my favorite choice for a full blown desktop or server but this time I've used something else for my installation



I really like it because it has the same rolling update approach like Gentoo, there are no “major versions” there's just the version you're using and the current stable, current stable changes every hour (depending on project activities...). Even more: it's definitively binary based so you don't have to wait ages to get something compiled (emerge, emerge, emerge, …), you may loose 0,00001% optimizations from your particular HW but someone still lives without it. But my poor Arch knowledge drove me to nothing, I'm an happy Arch user, I use it for building tailored servers for example and it's nice but it seems it's not really oriented to LiveUSB/CD creation like others (read below). You may use Arch for Servers or Desktop installations but in my particular case I've chosen to use something else


continues on the next page...



Previous chapters:
Creating a live distro for target appliance
Choosing the hardware


First Time at the 2011 Linux Collaboration Summit

<!-- @page { margin: 0.79in } P { margin-bottom: 0.08in } A:link { so-language: zxx } -->

LINUX COLLABORATION SUMMIT: Celebrating 20 Years of Linux

On April 6-8, was a memorial event. From all over the world, individuals with marvelous talents came together under one building to share ideas, teach one another and meet for the first time. Most importantly, we all came to celebrate linux’s 20th anniversary.

I was one of the lucky ones to have been honorably invited to sit and chat with some of the greatest minds the world had produced. It was intimidating at first, since I have never been to such a gathering of this caliber. Plus, these gurus knew more about linux than I can ever dream of. To keep pace with these specialists, I said little and kept my ears opened to learned as much as possible.

The atmosphere was peaceful, the people were friendly, and most importantly, they encouraged you to participate, add thoughts, ask questions and just plain mingle. It was almost like a family reunion, reconnecting with long lost relatives.

I met up with three friends who's skills in linux are very unique. This was the first time we met face-to-face, from constant online chatting, and gotten along very well. One of them, who is actually the “2011 Ultimate linux Guru” on, Mathew Fillpot, had been there last year and showed us around. We had the honor of meeting Jennifer Cloer, Director of Communications & Community at The Linux Foundation, and PR Director at, a site that allowed me to enter the world of linux. It was also through this site that allowed me to meet these fascinating individuals.

After meeting a few special attendees, the four of us, and all the other guests gathered in an auditorium at hotel Kabuki, where Jim Zemblim, Co executive of the Linux foundation, opened with a speech explaining the direction linux was heading. Afterwards, the attention was turned to members of various companies to talk about opensource projects they were engaged in. From these panels, it was made aware of the increasing activities involving linux. And, more is to come.

After the panel speeches were done, we were all invited to a prestigious restaurant that served delicious food all night. This was good to break the ice for newer members. There is nothing better than good food and good conversation with people of the same genre. Have to admit, during this particular time, away from the keyboard and monitor, we were just a bunch of ordinary people having a good time. You wouldn't notice the difference.

The next 2 days involved workshops sessions for various linux projects, for example, Yocto, Embedded linux, linux standard base, etc. In these sessions, detailed explanation were given regarding project motives and how they function. The audience of these sessions freely gave their opinion about the development of these projects and any concerns and confusion they had. The speakers did a very good job distributing the information and answering questions. This assures the projects are being handed by the most dedicated and skillful professionals. Ok, I will say it, it was like being back in college on the first day.

Yet I’ve saved the best for last. Not only was I invited because I was within the top 5 2011 Gurus, but also, I’m one of the 4 moderators of As a moderator, you are in-charge of hunting down spam and any kind of site abuse, with the addition of information contribution and consulting. Moderation was voluntary, however, it allowed me to give back to the community that helped so much in my progression of learning GNU/Linux. had a session at the Summit called the planning meeting” where the site admins and the moderators got together to discuss any improvements and concerns about the site's community section. This was a thrilling experience. In that room, giving input on how the site could perform better on its relation to the community couldn’t feel any better. Even as nervous as I was, there was no hesitation to take advantage of the opportunity to have make an impact, and I;m ready for more.

I wished I picked up on linux a long time ago. One of the important things that I've learned is that linux is also a community of collaboration not just people programming and building the latest hardware for maximum optimization, although, a lot of that goes on. Yet we all share ideas and look for opportunities to improve business operations and help one another. Couldn't be more happier to part of this great organization. 


Resizing a SAN attached volume without rebooting

Ever needed to add some extra space to that LUN on your server, but doing so you think you might need a reboot for the server to recognise the additional space?

The following set of steps talks through what needs doing to avoid that reboot!

Firstly, I should make it clear that this article assumes that any volumes needing expansion are additional volumes and do not include the disk or volume containing the running operating system, the steps required to extend OS partition are different. Also a warning point, several of these steps carry potential risk for data loss if you are unsure or make an error, always have a backup handy before manipulating your filesystems and devices

Here is the scenario: I have a SAN-based data volume named "/my_data" which is currently 20GB in size. I need to extend this filesystem to a new size of 40GB.

My first job is to log into my SAN appliance and extend the LUN containing "/my_data", as there are many SAN vendors and technologies available I have omitted describing this step in any detail. Suffice to say in my SAN administration console I will add an additional 20GB to the LUN containing "/my_data" to make it a total of 40GB

One warning point for my current SAN is that I need to umount "/my_data" so that it is not being accessed whilst the SAN extends the LUN. Once this task is completed we are ready to move back onto our Linux Server to prepare the volume for its new space.

If we now remount "/my_data" we will see that it still shows as having still only 20GB available, for the purposes of this article the disk device we are presenting to the operating system from the SAN shows in the server logs as /dev/sdb1, and is mounted at "/my_data".

1.  mount /dev/sdb1 /my_data

2. df /my_data which shows 20GB. - Utils like fdisk at this point will also still see the old value.

3. unmount /my_data again to perform the next step.

Running scripts like will also normally fail to pick up the changes.

Next step is to type the following command into the shell, Here is the magic bit that means we dont have to reboot:

echo 1 > /sys/block/sdb/device/rescan (where sdb is your chosen disk device number).

As the command suggests this instructs the system to rescan the specified device, and check for changes.

After this operation completes using fdisk or something like YaST partition manger will reveal the extra space. However, this doesnt mean that the new space is available for use yet, the filesystem that is already on the disk needs to be told about the extra space.

You can then use GParted(Very user friendly) or your preferred partition manager to extend the extra space into partition /dev/sdb1. When this is done, re-issuing the mount command will reflect the new space, all of which was possible with no reboot!





LDR: The birth of a Linux distro - Part 1

So I've always been a huge fan of Arch Linux. For many years it has been my weapon of choice for pretty much anything from web servers to development environments. It's incredibly lightweight, fast, stable yet up-to-date, and highly customizable.

Sure it doesn't have all the bells and whistles of other distros, nor does it take the responsibility of configuring complex areas such as Sound support or Network hot-swapping; but I think this is quite healthy... I spent years swearing at Microsoft products because they feel they have to do everything for you (no matter how complex) and then things just didn't work. Ironically if they have left things lite and transparent and left the responsibility of getting it working to best suit my requirements to me, then I wouldn't have held them responsible when something wouldn't work.

Thankfully I am out of that world now, and am taking what I have learnt from it with me.

My biggest issue with Arch was that it would take an entire evening to get everything I need installed and configured the way I like it. So I eventually decided to invest some time into creating my own derivative.

This derivative included my own custom repository, so I can install my packages I have acquired from various places (or written myself) from a single command.

It also contains configuration changes to the core platform, so it behaves the way I want it to (and sports my own branding!)

Hunting around the Arch forums, looking for people who have done something similar, I stumbled upon a set of script files called archiso. Unfortunately I couldn't get archiso working straight away, as there was some problems with the Makefile included on the Arch wiki. I began to edit it, adding my own parts so it could do extra things like branding.

To be able to create a derivative, I first needed to brush up on how a Live CD works. The best way to do this is to break the boot sequence into logical chunks:

The Boot Loader

The boot loader is the first component to be loaded. Arch CDs use the ISO version of SYSLINUX (ISOLINUX) which lives in the /boot folder. It loads up and reads the config file /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg which gives it a list of boot configurations (eg. which partition, initrd, kernel, kernel boot options etc..) that can be loaded. Once one of these is chosen, the kernel is executed using the chosen options.

Initial Ram Disk

Also known as "early user space", the initial ram disk is an image which contains the kernel and a super lite root filesystem which is just enough to prepare the system for the real root system to be mounted. This involves running kernel hooks and hardware detection.

You can create an initrd by using mkinitcpio with a config file which contains a list of the kernel hooks that need to be run during this early boot stage.

One of the hooks for Arch's Live CDs reads a file on the root of the CD called isomounts. This is an fstab file for the CD. It mounts the root file system and the Init scripts gets run.

Init scripts

The init scripts begin with inittab. This is a file which determines which runlevel should be ran (these tend to be different for each distribution, but 3 generally means a multi-user environment with networking, which is the default for arch). 5 means the same, but with a desktop manager (eg. GNOME, KDE, OpenBox, FLuxbox, wmii, dwm etc..). inittab is also the script which is responsible for respawning the login manager if you kill Xorg.

Arch also has a load more init scripts for various purposes, you can read more about them here. rc.sysinit runs on boot; it does more hardware configuration, logs to dmesg, starts the daemons etc.. Followed by rc.multi and rc.local which contains any finish up code before the login is displayed.

LDR Linux

So I now have a working Arch derivative with all these steps configured. You can check it out at: Obviously, as Arch is GPL based, I have open sourced by build scripts and packages here. I hope it is of good use to people who want to do the same, or use as a learning tool!

I released LDR recently as an ISO image, but didn't quite realise the impact of doing so... I was added to Distrowatch and quickly started receiving thousands or hits per day, which quickly destroyed my little home web server! :(

I managed to get the ISO mirrored (BIG thanks to Neil Bright of Georgia Tech) which deferred the bandwidth load from my home server, which runs quite happily again now! 

I didn't released LDR Linux planning on turning it into the next big distro, it was more about being able to quickly install Arch with all my custom trimmings in less than 1hr and also  sharing my code and my work to inspire others, but from the feedback I have received, it's plain to see that others want LDR on their machines + they want it supported too!

I am happy to do this, but could use a bit of help from anyone in any capacity (even if it's just spell checking on the wiki, or general testing) any help or donations would be greatly appreciated!

Google Chrome, wmii, OSDBattery (run battery-status or Mod4+B), Adobe Flash, and PulseAudio all work out-of-the-box when testing in VirtualBox!

LDR Linux 1.06


Page 19 of 133

Who we are ?

The Linux Foundation is a non-profit consortium dedicated to the growth of Linux.

More About the foundation...

Frequent Questions

Join / Linux Training / Board