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Is there a way to show which users could log onto the system and all groups available on the system. NOT which users were currently online and which groups you belong to.
That's *VERY* difficult to know.
However, in the average system, everything is in /etc/passwd (those users with no "nologin" or "false" at the end can log in) and /etc/group
Marc is right, but the information is certainly available, you'll just have to check multiple sources.
You should also take a look at the /etc/shadow file and check for anything with an ! at the start of the second field.
A user can be locked in this way by running passwd -l USERNAME
Wikipedia actually has fairly good articles on both passwd and shadow that might help you understand the syntax.