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truncate.2

TRUNCATE

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
Updated: 2009-02-28
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

truncate, ftruncate - truncate a file to a specified length  

SYNOPSIS

#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>

int truncate(const char *path, off_t length);
int ftruncate(int fd, off_t length);

Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

truncate(): _BSD_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500
ftruncate(): _BSD_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L  

DESCRIPTION

The truncate() and ftruncate() functions cause the regular file named by path or referenced by fd to be truncated to a size of precisely length bytes.

If the file previously was larger than this size, the extra data is lost. If the file previously was shorter, it is extended, and the extended part reads as null bytes ('\0').

The file offset is not changed.

If the size changed, then the st_ctime and st_mtime fields (respectively, time of last status change and time of last modification; see stat(2)) for the file are updated, and the set-user-ID and set-group-ID permission bits may be cleared.

With ftruncate(), the file must be open for writing; with truncate(), the file must be writable.  

RETURN VALUE

On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.  

ERRORS

For truncate():
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix, or the named file is not writable by the user. (See also path_resolution(7).)
EFAULT
Path points outside the process's allocated address space.
EFBIG
The argument length is larger than the maximum file size. (XSI)
EINTR
A signal was caught during execution.
EINVAL
The argument length is negative or larger than the maximum file size.
EIO
An I/O error occurred updating the inode.
EINTR
While blocked waiting to complete, the call was interrupted by a signal handler; see fcntl(2) and signal(7).
EISDIR
The named file is a directory.
ELOOP
Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname.
ENAMETOOLONG
A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or an entire pathname exceeded 1023 characters.
ENOENT
The named file does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
EPERM
The underlying file system does not support extending a file beyond its current size.
EROFS
The named file resides on a read-only file system.
ETXTBSY
The file is a pure procedure (shared text) file that is being executed.

For ftruncate() the same errors apply, but instead of things that can be wrong with path, we now have things that can be wrong with the file descriptor, fd:

EBADF
fd is not a valid descriptor.
EBADF or EINVAL
fd is not open for writing.
EINVAL
fd does not reference a regular file.
 

CONFORMING TO

4.4BSD, SVr4, POSIX.1-2001 (these calls first appeared in 4.2BSD).  

NOTES

The above description is for XSI-compliant systems. For non-XSI-compliant systems, the POSIX standard allows two behaviors for ftruncate() when length exceeds the file length (note that truncate() is not specified at all in such an environment): either returning an error, or extending the file. Like most Unix implementations, Linux follows the XSI requirement when dealing with native file systems. However, some non-native file systems do not permit truncate() and ftruncate() to be used to extend a file beyond its current length: a notable example on Linux is VFAT.  

SEE ALSO

open(2), stat(2), path_resolution(7)  

COLOPHON

This page is part of release 3.21 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
RETURN VALUE
ERRORS
CONFORMING TO
NOTES
SEE ALSO
COLOPHON

 

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