Manpage of MADVISE
MADVISESection: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
NAMEmadvise - give advice about use of memory
int madvise(void *addr, size_t length, int advice);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
- Since glibc 2.19:
- Up to and including glibc 2.19:
DESCRIPTIONThe madvise() system call is used to give advice or directions to the kernel about the address range beginning at address addrand with size lengthbytes. Initially, the system call supported a set of "conventional" advicevalues, which are also available on several other implementations. (Note, though, that madvise() is not specified in POSIX.) Subsequently, a number of Linux-specific advicevalues have been added.
Conventional advice valuesThe advicevalues listed below allow an application to tell the kernel how it expects to use some mapped or shared memory areas, so that the kernel can choose appropriate read-ahead and caching techniques. These advicevalues do not influence the semantics of the application (except in the case of MADV_DONTNEED), but may influence its performance. All of the advicevalues listed here have analogs in the POSIX-specified posix_madvise(3) function, and the values have the same meanings, with the exception of MADV_DONTNEED.
The advice is indicated in the adviceargument, which is one of the following:
- No special treatment. This is the default.
- Expect page references in random order. (Hence, read ahead may be less useful than normally.)
- Expect page references in sequential order. (Hence, pages in the given range can be aggressively read ahead, and may be freed soon after they are accessed.)
- Expect access in the near future. (Hence, it might be a good idea to read some pages ahead.)
- Do not expect access in the near future.
(For the time being, the application is finished with the given range,
so the kernel can free resources associated with it.)
After a successful MADV_DONTNEEDoperation, the semantics of memory access in the specified region are changed: subsequent accesses of pages in the range will succeed, but will result in either repopulating the memoryfrom the up-to-date of the underlying mapped file (for shared file mappings, shared anonymous mappings, and shmem-based techniques such as System V shared memory segments) or zero-fill-on-demand pages for anonymous private mappings.
Note that, when applied to shared mappings, MADV_DONTNEEDmight not lead to immediate freeing of the pages in the range. The kernel is free to delay freeing the pages until an appropriate moment. The resident set size (RSS) of the calling process will be immediately reduced however.
MADV_DONTNEEDcannot be applied to locked pages, Huge TLB pages, or VM_PFNMAPpages. (Pages marked with the kernel-internal VM_PFNMAPflag are special memory areas that are not managed by the virtual memory subsystem. Such pages are typically created by device drivers that map the pages into user space.)
Linux-specific advice valuesThe following Linux-specific advicevalues have no counterparts in the POSIX-specified posix_madvise(3), and may or may not have counterparts in the madvise() interface available on other implementations. Note that some of these operations change the semantics of memory accesses.
- MADV_REMOVE (since Linux 2.6.16)
- Free up a given range of pages
and its associated backing store.
This is equivalent to punching a hole in the corresponding byte
range of the backing store (see
Subsequent accesses in the specified address range will see
bytes containing zero.
The specified address range must be mapped shared and writable. This flag cannot be applied to locked pages, Huge TLB pages, or VM_PFNMAPpages.
In the initial implementation, only shmfs/tmpfs supported MADV_REMOVE; but since Linux 3.5, any filesystem which supports the fallocate(2) FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLEmode also supports MADV_REMOVE. Hugetlbfs will fail with the error EINVALand other filesystems fail with the error EOPNOTSUPP.
- MADV_DONTFORK (since Linux 2.6.16)
- Do not make the pages in this range available to the child after a fork(2). This is useful to prevent copy-on-write semantics from changing the physical location of a page if the parent writes to it after a fork(2). (Such page relocations cause problems for hardware that DMAs into the page.)
- MADV_DOFORK (since Linux 2.6.16)
- Undo the effect of MADV_DONTFORK, restoring the default behavior, whereby a mapping is inherited across fork(2).
- MADV_HWPOISON (since Linux 2.6.32)
- Poison the pages in the range specified by
lengthand handle subsequent references to those pages
like a hardware memory corruption.
This operation is available only for privileged
This operation may result in the calling process receiving a
SIGBUSand the page being unmapped.
This feature is intended for testing of memory error-handling code; it is available only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE.
- MADV_MERGEABLE (since Linux 2.6.32)
- Enable Kernel Samepage Merging (KSM) for the pages in the range specified by
The kernel regularly scans those areas of user memory that have
been marked as mergeable,
looking for pages with identical content.
These are replaced by a single write-protected page (which is automatically
copied if a process later wants to update the content of the page).
KSM merges only private anonymous pages (see
The KSM feature is intended for applications that generate many instances of the same data (e.g., virtualization systems such as KVM). It can consume a lot of processing power; use with care. See the Linux kernel source file Documentation/vm/ksm.txtfor more details.
The MADV_MERGEABLEand MADV_UNMERGEABLEoperations are available only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_KSM.
- MADV_UNMERGEABLE (since Linux 2.6.32)
- Undo the effect of an earlier MADV_MERGEABLEoperation on the specified address range; KSM unmerges whatever pages it had merged in the address range specified by addrand length.
- MADV_SOFT_OFFLINE (since Linux 2.6.33)
- Soft offline the pages in the range specified by
The memory of each page in the specified range is preserved
This feature is intended for testing of memory error-handling code; it is available only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_MEMORY_FAILURE. accessed, the same content will be visible,
but in a new physical page frame),
and the original page is offlined
(i.e., no longer used, and taken out of normal memory management).
The effect of the
MADV_SOFT_OFFLINEoperation is invisible to (i.e., does not change the semantics of)
the calling process.
- MADV_HUGEPAGE (since Linux 2.6.38)
- Enable Transparent Huge Pages (THP) for pages in the range specified by
Currently, Transparent Huge Pages work only with private anonymous pages (see
The kernel will regularly scan the areas marked as huge page candidates
to replace them with huge pages.
The kernel will also allocate huge pages directly when the region is
naturally aligned to the huge page size (see
This feature is primarily aimed at applications that use large mappings of data and access large regions of that memory at a time (e.g., virtualization systems such as QEMU). It can very easily waste memory (e.g., a 2MB mapping that only ever accesses 1 byte will result in 2MB of wired memory instead of one 4KB page). See the Linux kernel source file Documentation/vm/transhuge.txtfor more details.
The MADV_HUGEPAGEand MADV_NOHUGEPAGEoperations are available only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE.
- MADV_NOHUGEPAGE (since Linux 2.6.38)
- Ensures that memory in the address range specified by addrand lengthwill not be collapsed into huge pages.
- MADV_DONTDUMP (since Linux 3.4)
- Exclude from a core dump those pages in the range specified by addrand length. This is useful in applications that have large areas of memory that are known not to be useful in a core dump. The effect of MADV_DONTDUMPtakes precedence over the bit mask that is set via the /proc/[pid]/coredump_filterfile (see core(5)).
- MADV_DODUMP (since Linux 3.4)
- Undo the effect of an earlier MADV_DONTDUMP.
- MADV_FREE (since Linux 4.5)
- The application no longer requires the pages in the range specified by
The kernel can thus free these pages,
but the freeing could be delayed until memory pressure occurs.
For each of the pages that has been marked to be freed
but has not yet been freed,
the free operation will be canceled if the caller writes into the page.
After a successful
MADV_FREEoperation, any stale data (i.e., dirty, unwritten pages) will be lost
when the kernel frees the pages.
However, subsequent writes to pages in the range will succeed
and then kernel cannot free those dirtied pages,
so that the caller can always see just written data.
If there is no subsequent write,
the kernel can free the pages at any time.
Once pages in the range have been freed, the caller will
see zero-fill-on-demand pages upon subsequent page references.
The MADV_FREEoperation can be applied only to private anonymous pages (see mmap(2)). On a swapless system, freeing pages in a given range happens instantly, regardless of memory pressure.
RETURN VALUEOn success, madvise() returns zero. On error, it returns -1 and errnois set appropriately.
- adviceis MADV_REMOVE, but the specified address range is not a shared writable mapping.
- A kernel resource was temporarily unavailable.
- The map exists, but the area maps something that isn't a file.
- addris not page-aligned or lengthis negative.
- adviceis not a valid.
- adviceis MADV_DONTNEEDor MADV_REMOVEand the specified address range includes locked, Huge TLB pages, or VM_PFNMAPpages.
- adviceis MADV_MERGEABLEor MADV_UNMERGEABLE, but the kernel was not configured with CONFIG_KSM.
- (for MADV_WILLNEED) Paging in this area would exceed the process's maximum resident set size.
- (for MADV_WILLNEED) Not enough memory: paging in failed.
- Addresses in the specified range are not currently mapped, or are outside the address space of the process.
- adviceis MADV_HWPOISON, but the caller does not have the CAP_SYS_ADMINcapability.
VERSIONSSince Linux 3.18, support for this system call is optional, depending on the setting of the CONFIG_ADVISE_SYSCALLSconfiguration option.
CONFORMING TOmadvise() is not specified by any standards. Versions of this system call, implementing a wide variety of advicevalues, exist on many other implementations. Other implementations typically implement at least the flags listed above under Conventional advice flags, albeit with some variation in semantics.
POSIX.1-2001 describes posix_madvise(3) with constants POSIX_MADV_NORMAL, POSIX_MADV_RANDOM, POSIX_MADV_SEQUENTIAL, POSIX_MADV_WILLNEED, and POSIX_MADV_DONTNEED, and so on, with behavior close to the similarly named flags listed above. (POSIX.1-2008 adds a further flag, POSIX_MADV_NOREUSE, that has no analog in madvise().)
Linux notesThe Linux implementation requires that the address addrbe page-aligned, and allows lengthto be zero. If there are some parts of the specified address range that are not mapped, the Linux version of madvise() ignores them and applies the call to the rest (but returns ENOMEMfrom the system call, as it should).
SEE ALSOgetrlimit(2), mincore(2), mmap(2), mprotect(2), msync(2), munmap(2), prctl(2), posix_madvise(3), core(5)
- RETURN VALUE
- CONFORMING TO
- SEE ALSO
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