Manpage of OPEN
OPENSection: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
NAMEopen, openat, creat - open and possibly create a file
#include <sys/types.h>#include <sys/stat.h>#include <fcntl.h>int open(const char *pathname, int flags);int open(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode);int creat(const char *pathname, mode_t mode);int openat(int dirfd, const char *pathname, int flags);int openat(int dirfd, const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
- Since glibc 2.10:
- _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L
- Before glibc 2.10:
DESCRIPTIONGiven a pathnamefor a file, open() returns a file descriptor, a small, nonnegative integer for use in subsequent system calls (read(2), write(2), lseek(2), fcntl(2), etc.). The file descriptor returned by a successful call will be the lowest-numbered file descriptor not currently open for the process.
By default, the new file descriptor is set to remain open across an execve(2) (i.e., the FD_CLOEXECfile descriptor flag described in fcntl(2) is initially disabled); the O_CLOEXECflag, described below, can be used to change this default. The file offset is set to the beginning of the file (see lseek(2)).
A call to open() creates a new open file description, an entry in the system-wide table of open files. The open file description records the file offset and the file status flags (see below). A file descriptor is a reference to an open file description; this reference is unaffected if pathnameis subsequently removed or modified to refer to a different file. For further details on open file descriptions, see NOTES.
The argument flagsmust include one of the following access modes: O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, or O_RDWR. These request opening the file read-only, write-only, or read/write, respectively.
In addition, zero or more file creation flags and file status flags can be bitwise-or'd in flags. The file creation flagsare O_CLOEXEC, O_CREAT, O_DIRECTORY, O_EXCL, O_NOCTTY, O_NOFOLLOW, O_TMPFILE, and O_TRUNC. The file status flagsare all of the remaining flags listed below. The distinction between these two groups of flags is that the file creation flags affect the semantics of the open operation itself, while the file status flags affect the semantics of subsequent I/O operations. The file status flags can be retrieved and (in some cases) modified; see fcntl(2) for details.
The full list of file creation flags and file status flags is as follows:
- The file is opened in append mode. Before each write(2), the file offset is positioned at the end of the file, as if with lseek(2). The modification of the file offset and the write operation are performed as a single atomic step.
- O_APPENDmay lead to corrupted files on NFS filesystems if more than one process appends data to a file at once. This is because NFS does not support appending to a file, so the client kernel has to simulate it, which can't be done without a race condition.
- Enable signal-driven I/O: generate a signal (SIGIOby default, but this can be changed via fcntl(2)) when input or output becomes possible on this file descriptor. This feature is available only for terminals, pseudoterminals, sockets, and (since Linux 2.6) pipes and FIFOs. See fcntl(2) for further details. See also BUGS, below.
- O_CLOEXEC (since Linux 2.6.23)
- Enable the close-on-exec flag for the new file descriptor. Specifying this flag permits a program to avoid additional fcntl(2) F_SETFDoperations to set the FD_CLOEXECflag.
- Note that the use of this flag is essential in some multithreaded programs, because using a separate fcntl(2) F_SETFDoperation to set the FD_CLOEXECflag does not suffice to avoid race conditions where one thread opens a file descriptor and attempts to set its close-on-exec flag using fcntl(2) at the same time as another thread does a fork(2) plus execve(2). Depending on the order of execution, the race may lead to the file descriptor returned by open() being unintentionally leaked to the program executed by the child process created by fork(2). (This kind of race is in principle possible for any system call that creates a file descriptor whose close-on-exec flag should be set, and various other Linux system calls provide an equivalent of the O_CLOEXECflag to deal with this problem.)
- If the file does not exist, it will be created.
- The owner (user ID) of the new file is set to the effective user ID of the process.
- The group ownership (group ID) of the new file is set either to
the effective group ID of the process (System V semantics)
or to the group ID of the parent directory (BSD semantics).
On Linux, the behavior depends on whether the
set-group-ID mode bit is set on the parent directory:
if that bit is set, then BSD semantics apply;
otherwise, System V semantics apply.
For some filesystems, the behavior also depends on the
sysvgroupsmount options described in
The modeargument specifies the file mode bits be applied when a new file is created. This argument must be supplied when O_CREATor O_TMPFILEis specified in flags; if neither O_CREATnor O_TMPFILEis specified, then modeis ignored. The effective mode is modified by the process's umaskin the usual way: in the absence of a default ACL, the mode of the created file is (mode & ~umask). Note that this mode applies only to future accesses of the newly created file; the open() call that creates a read-only file may well return a read/write file descriptor.
The following symbolic constants are provided for mode:
- 00700 user (file owner) has read, write, and execute permission
- 00400 user has read permission
- 00200 user has write permission
- 00100 user has execute permission
- 00070 group has read, write, and execute permission
- 00040 group has read permission
- 00020 group has write permission
- 00010 group has execute permission
- 00007 others have read, write, and execute permission
- 00004 others have read permission
- 00002 others have write permission
- 00001 others have execute permission
- According to POSIX, the effect when other bits are set in modeis unspecified. On Linux, the following bits are also honored in mode:
- O_DIRECT (since Linux 2.4.10)
- Try to minimize cache effects of the I/O to and from this file. In general this will degrade performance, but it is useful in special situations, such as when applications do their own caching. File I/O is done directly to/from user-space buffers. The O_DIRECTflag on its own makes an effort to transfer data synchronously, but does not give the guarantees of the O_SYNCflag that data and necessary metadata are transferred. To guarantee synchronous I/O, O_SYNCmust be used in addition to O_DIRECT. See NOTES below for further discussion.
- A semantically similar (but deprecated) interface for block devices is described in raw(8).
- If pathname is not a directory, cause the open to fail. This flag was added in kernel version 2.1.126, to avoid denial-of-service problems if opendir(3) is called on a FIFO or tape device.
- Write operations on the file will complete according to the requirements of synchronized I/O dataintegrity completion.
- By the time write(2) (and similar) return, the output data has been transferred to the underlying hardware, along with any file metadata that would be required to retrieve that data (i.e., as though each write(2) was followed by a call to fdatasync(2)). See NOTES below.
- Ensure that this call creates the file: if this flag is specified in conjunction with O_CREAT, and pathnamealready exists, then open() will fail.
- When these two flags are specified, symbolic links are not followed: if pathnameis a symbolic link, then open() fails regardless of where the symbolic link points to.
- In general, the behavior of O_EXCLis undefined if it is used without O_CREAT. There is one exception: on Linux 2.6 and later, O_EXCLcan be used without O_CREATif pathnamerefers to a block device. If the block device is in use by the system (e.g., mounted), open() fails with the error EBUSY.
- On NFS, O_EXCLis supported only when using NFSv3 or later on kernel 2.6 or later. In NFS environments where O_EXCLsupport is not provided, programs that rely on it for performing locking tasks will contain a race condition. Portable programs that want to perform atomic file locking using a lockfile, and need to avoid reliance on NFS support for O_EXCL, can create a unique file on the same filesystem (e.g., incorporating hostname and PID), and use link(2) to make a link to the lockfile. If link(2) returns 0, the lock is successful. Otherwise, use stat(2) on the unique file to check if its link count has increased to 2, in which case the lock is also successful.
- (LFS) Allow files whose sizes cannot be represented in an off_t(but can be represented in an off64_t) to be opened. The _LARGEFILE64_SOURCEmacro must be defined (before including anyheader files) in order to obtain this definition. Setting the _FILE_OFFSET_BITSfeature test macro to 64 (rather than using O_LARGEFILE) is the preferred method of accessing large files on 32-bit systems (see feature_test_macros(7)).
- O_NOATIME (since Linux 2.6.8)
- Do not update the file last access time (st_atimein the inode) when the file is read(2).
- This flag can be employed only if one of the following conditions is true:
- The effective UID of the process matches the owner UID of the file.
- The calling process has the CAP_FOWNERcapability in its user namespace and the owner UID of the file has a mapping in the namespace.
- This flag is intended for use by indexing or backup programs, where its use can significantly reduce the amount of disk activity. This flag may not be effective on all filesystems. One example is NFS, where the server maintains the access time.
- If pathnamerefers to a terminal device---see tty(4)---it will not become the process's controlling terminal even if the process does not have one.
- If pathname is a symbolic link, then the open fails, with the error ELOOP. Symbolic links in earlier components of the pathname will still be followed. (Note that the ELOOPerror that can occur in this case is indistinguishable from the case where an open fails because there are too many symbolic links found while resolving components in the prefix part of the pathname.)
- This flag is a FreeBSD extension, which was added to Linux in version 2.1.126, and has subsequently been standardized in POSIX.1-2008.
- See also O_PATHbelow.
- O_NONBLOCK or O_NDELAY
- When possible, the file is opened in nonblocking mode. Neither the open() nor any subsequent operations on the file descriptor which is returned will cause the calling process to wait.
- Note that this flag has no effect for regular files and block devices; that is, I/O operations will (briefly) block when device activity is required, regardless of whether O_NONBLOCKis set. Since O_NONBLOCKsemantics might eventually be implemented, applications should not depend upon blocking behavior when specifying this flag for regular files and block devices.
- For the handling of FIFOs (named pipes), see also fifo(7). For a discussion of the effect of O_NONBLOCKin conjunction with mandatory file locks and with file leases, see fcntl(2).
- O_PATH (since Linux 2.6.39)
- Obtain a file descriptor that can be used for two purposes: to indicate a location in the filesystem tree and to perform operations that act purely at the file descriptor level. The file itself is not opened, and other file operations (e.g., read(2), write(2), fchmod(2), fchown(2), fgetxattr(2), ioctl(2), mmap(2)) fail with the error EBADF.
- The following operations
canbe performed on the resulting file descriptor:
- close(2); fchdir(2) (since Linux 3.5); fstat(2) (since Linux 3.6); fstatfs(2) (since Linux 3.12).
- Duplicating the file descriptor (dup(2), fcntl(2) F_DUPFD, etc.).
- Getting and setting file descriptor flags (fcntl(2) F_GETFDand F_SETFD).
- Retrieving open file status flags using the fcntl(2) F_GETFLoperation: the returned flags will include the bit O_PATH.
- Passing the file descriptor as the dirfdargument of openat() and the other "*at()" system calls. This includes linkat(2) with AT_EMPTY_PATH(or via procfs using AT_SYMLINK_FOLLOW) even if the file is not a directory.
- Passing the file descriptor to another process via a UNIX domain socket (see SCM_RIGHTSin unix(7)).
- When O_PATHis specified in flags, flag bits other than O_CLOEXEC, O_DIRECTORY, and O_NOFOLLOWare ignored.
- If pathnameis a symbolic link and the O_NOFOLLOWflag is also specified, then the call returns a file descriptor referring to the symbolic link. This file descriptor can be used as the dirfdargument in calls to fchownat(2), fstatat(2), linkat(2), and readlinkat(2) with an empty pathname to have the calls operate on the symbolic link.
- If pathnamerefers to an automount point that has not yet been triggered, so no other filesystem is mounted on it, then the call returns a file descriptor referring to the automount directory without triggering a mount. fstatfs(2) can then be used to determine if it is, in fact, an untriggered automount point (.f_type == AUTOFS_SUPER_MAGIC).
- Write operations on the file will complete according to the requirements of synchronized I/O fileintegrity completion (by contrast with the synchronized I/O dataintegrity completion provided by O_DSYNC.)
- By the time write(2) (and similar) return, the output data and associated file metadata have been transferred to the underlying hardware (i.e., as though each write(2) was followed by a call to fsync(2)). See NOTES below.
- O_TMPFILE (since Linux 3.11)
- Create an unnamed temporary file. The pathnameargument specifies a directory; an unnamed inode will be created in that directory's filesystem. Anything written to the resulting file will be lost when the last file descriptor is closed, unless the file is given a name.
- O_TMPFILEmust be specified with one of O_RDWRor O_WRONLYand, optionally, O_EXCL. If O_EXCLis not specified, then linkat(2) can be used to link the temporary file into the filesystem, making it permanent, using code like the following:
- char path[PATH_MAX];
fd = open("/path/to/dir", O_TMPFILE | O_RDWR,
S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
/* File I/O on 'fd'... */
snprintf(path, PATH_MAX, "/proc/self/fd/%d", fd); linkat(AT_FDCWD, path, AT_FDCWD, "/path/for/file",
- In this case, the open() modeargument determines the file permission mode, as with O_CREAT.
- Specifying O_EXCLin conjunction with O_TMPFILEprevents a temporary file from being linked into the filesystem in the above manner. (Note that the meaning of O_EXCLin this case is different from the meaning of O_EXCLotherwise.)
- There are two main use cases for
- Improved tmpfile(3) functionality: race-free creation of temporary files that (1) are automatically deleted when closed; (2) can never be reached via any pathname; (3) are not subject to symlink attacks; and (4) do not require the caller to devise unique names.
- Creating a file that is initially invisible, which is then populated with data and adjusted to have appropriate filesystem attributes (fchown(2), fchmod(2), fsetxattr(2), etc.) before being atomically linked into the filesystem in a fully formed state (using linkat(2) as described above).
- O_TMPFILErequires support by the underlying filesystem; only a subset of Linux filesystems provide that support. In the initial implementation, support was provided in the ext2, ext3, ext4, UDF, Minix, and shmem filesystems. Support for other filesystems has subsequently been added as follows: XFS (Linux 3.15); Btrfs (Linux 3.16); F2FS (Linux 3.16); and ubifs (Linux 4.9)
- If the file already exists and is a regular file and the access mode allows writing (i.e., is O_RDWRor O_WRONLY) it will be truncated to length 0. If the file is a FIFO or terminal device file, the O_TRUNCflag is ignored. Otherwise, the effect of O_TRUNCis unspecified.
creat()A call to creat() is equivalent to calling open() with flagsequal to O_CREAT|O_WRONLY|O_TRUNC.
openat()The openat() system call operates in exactly the same way as open(), except for the differences described here.
- If the pathname given in pathnameis relative, then it is interpreted relative to the directory referred to by the file descriptor dirfd(rather than relative to the current working directory of the calling process, as is done by open() for a relative pathname).
- If pathnameis relative and dirfdis the special value AT_FDCWD, then pathnameis interpreted relative to the current working directory of the calling process (like open()).
- If pathnameis absolute, then dirfdis ignored.
RETURN VALUEopen(), openat(), and creat() return the new file descriptor, or -1 if an error occurred (in which case, errnois set appropriately).
ERRORSopen(), openat(), and creat() can fail with the following errors:
- The requested access to the file is not allowed, or search permission is denied for one of the directories in the path prefix of pathname, or the file did not exist yet and write access to the parent directory is not allowed. (See also path_resolution(7).)
- Where O_CREATis specified, the file does not exist, and the user's quota of disk blocks or inodes on the filesystem has been exhausted.
- pathnamealready exists and O_CREAT and O_EXCLwere used.
- pathnamepoints outside your accessible address space.
- See EOVERFLOW.
- While blocked waiting to complete an open of a slow device (e.g., a FIFO; see fifo(7)), the call was interrupted by a signal handler; see signal(7).
- The filesystem does not support the O_DIRECTflag. See NOTESfor more information.
- Invalid value in flags.
- O_TMPFILEwas specified in flags, but neither O_WRONLYnor O_RDWRwas specified.
- pathnamerefers to a directory and the access requested involved writing (that is, O_WRONLYor O_RDWRis set).
- pathnamerefers to an existing directory, O_TMPFILEand one of O_WRONLYor O_RDWRwere specified in flags, but this kernel version does not provide the O_TMPFILEfunctionality.
- Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving pathname.
- pathnamewas a symbolic link, and flagsspecified O_NOFOLLOWbut not O_PATH.
- The per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has been reached (see the description of RLIMIT_NOFILEin getrlimit(2)).
- pathnamewas too long.
- The system-wide limit on the total number of open files has been reached.
- pathnamerefers to a device special file and no corresponding device exists. (This is a Linux kernel bug; in this situation ENXIOmust be returned.)
- O_CREATis not set and the named file does not exist. Or, a directory component in pathnamedoes not exist or is a dangling symbolic link.
- pathnamerefers to a nonexistent directory, O_TMPFILEand one of O_WRONLYor O_RDWRwere specified in flags, but this kernel version does not provide the O_TMPFILEfunctionality.
- The named file is a FIFO, but memory for the FIFO buffer can't be allocated because the per-user hard limit on memory allocation for pipes has been reached and the caller is not privileged; see pipe(7).
- Insufficient kernel memory was available.
- pathnamewas to be created but the device containing pathnamehas no room for the new file.
- A component used as a directory in pathnameis not, in fact, a directory, or O_DIRECTORY was specified and pathnamewas not a directory.
- O_NONBLOCK | O_WRONLYis set, the named file is a FIFO, and no process has the FIFO open for reading.
- The file is a device special file and no corresponding device exists.
- The filesystem containing pathnamedoes not support O_TMPFILE.
- pathnamerefers to a regular file that is too large to be opened. The usual scenario here is that an application compiled on a 32-bit platform without -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64tried to open a file whose size exceeds (1<<31)-1bytes; see also O_LARGEFILEabove. This is the error specified by POSIX.1; in kernels before 2.6.24, Linux gave the error EFBIGfor this case.
- The O_NOATIMEflag was specified, but the effective user ID of the caller did not match the owner of the file and the caller was not privileged.
- The operation was prevented by a file seal; see fcntl(2).
- pathnamerefers to a file on a read-only filesystem and write access was requested.
- pathnamerefers to an executable image which is currently being executed and write access was requested.
- The O_NONBLOCKflag was specified, and an incompatible lease was held on the file (see fcntl(2)).
The following additional errors can occur for openat():
- dirfdis not a valid file descriptor.
- pathnameis a relative pathname and dirfdis a file descriptor referring to a file other than a directory.
VERSIONSopenat() was added to Linux in kernel 2.6.16; library support was added to glibc in version 2.4.
CONFORMING TOopen(), creat() SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.
The O_DIRECT, O_NOATIME, O_PATH, and O_TMPFILEflags are Linux-specific. One must define _GNU_SOURCEto obtain their definitions.
The O_CLOEXEC, O_DIRECTORY, and O_NOFOLLOWflags are not specified in POSIX.1-2001, but are specified in POSIX.1-2008. Since glibc 2.12, one can obtain their definitions by defining either _POSIX_C_SOURCEwith a value greater than or equal to 200809L or _XOPEN_SOURCEwith a value greater than or equal to 700. In glibc 2.11 and earlier, one obtains the definitions by defining _GNU_SOURCE.
As noted in feature_test_macros(7), feature test macros such as _POSIX_C_SOURCE, _XOPEN_SOURCE, and _GNU_SOURCEmust be defined before including anyheader files.
NOTESUnder Linux, the O_NONBLOCKflag indicates that one wants to open but does not necessarily have the intention to read or write. This is typically used to open devices in order to get a file descriptor for use with ioctl(2).
The (undefined) effect of O_RDONLY | O_TRUNCvaries among implementations. On many systems the file is actually truncated.
Note that open() can open device special files, but creat() cannot create them; use mknod(2) instead.
If the file is newly created, its st_atime, st_ctime, st_mtimefields (respectively, time of last access, time of last status change, and time of last modification; see stat(2)) are set to the current time, and so are the st_ctimeand st_mtimefields of the parent directory. Otherwise, if the file is modified because of the O_TRUNCflag, its st_ctimeand st_mtimefields are set to the current time.
The files in the /proc/[pid]/fddirectory show the open file descriptors of the process with the PID pid. The files in the /proc/[pid]/fdinfodirectory show even more information about these files descriptors. See proc(5) for further details of both of these directories.
Open file descriptionsThe term open file description is the one used by POSIX to refer to the entries in the system-wide table of open files. In other contexts, this object is variously also called an "open file object", a "file handle", an "open file table entry", or---in kernel-developer parlance---a struct file.
When a file descriptor is duplicated (using dup(2) or similar), the duplicate refers to the same open file description as the original file descriptor, and the two file descriptors consequently share the file offset and file status flags. Such sharing can also occur between processes: a child process created via fork(2) inherits duplicates of its parent's file descriptors, and those duplicates refer to the same open file descriptions.
Each open() of a file creates a new open file description; thus, there may be multiple open file descriptions corresponding to a file inode.
On Linux, one can use the kcmp(2) KCMP_FILEoperation to test whether two file descriptors (in the same process or in two different processes) refer to the same open file description.
Synchronized I/OThe POSIX.1-2008 "synchronized I/O" option specifies different variants of synchronized I/O, and specifies the open() flags O_SYNC, O_DSYNC, and O_RSYNCfor controlling the behavior. Regardless of whether an implementation supports this option, it must at least support the use of O_SYNCfor regular files.
Linux implements O_SYNCand O_DSYNC, but not O_RSYNC. (Somewhat incorrectly, glibc defines O_RSYNCto have the same value as O_SYNC.)
O_SYNCprovides synchronized I/O fileintegrity completion, meaning write operations will flush data and all associated metadata to the underlying hardware. O_DSYNCprovides synchronized I/O dataintegrity completion, meaning write operations will flush data to the underlying hardware, but will only flush metadata updates that are required to allow a subsequent read operation to complete successfully. Data integrity completion can reduce the number of disk operations that are required for applications that don't need the guarantees of file integrity completion.
To understand the difference between the two types of completion, consider two pieces of file metadata: the file last modification timestamp (st_mtime) and the file length. All write operations will update the last file modification timestamp, but only writes that add data to the end of the file will change the file length. The last modification timestamp is not needed to ensure that a read completes successfully, but the file length is. Thus, O_DSYNCwould only guarantee to flush updates to the file length metadata (whereas O_SYNCwould also always flush the last modification timestamp metadata).
Before Linux 2.6.33, Linux implemented only the O_SYNCflag for open(). However, when that flag was specified, most filesystems actually provided the equivalent of synchronized I/O dataintegrity completion (i.e., O_SYNCwas actually implemented as the equivalent of O_DSYNC).
Since Linux 2.6.33, proper O_SYNCsupport is provided. However, to ensure backward binary compatibility, O_DSYNCwas defined with the same value as the historical O_SYNC, and O_SYNCwas defined as a new (two-bit) flag value that includes the O_DSYNCflag value. This ensures that applications compiled against new headers get at least O_DSYNCsemantics on pre-2.6.33 kernels.
NFSThere are many infelicities in the protocol underlying NFS, affecting amongst others O_SYNC and O_NDELAY.
On NFS filesystems with UID mapping enabled, open() may return a file descriptor but, for example, read(2) requests are denied with EACCES. This is because the client performs open() by checking the permissions, but UID mapping is performed by the server upon read and write requests.
FIFOsOpening the read or write end of a FIFO blocks until the other end is also opened (by another process or thread). See fifo(7) for further details.
File access modeUnlike the other values that can be specified in flags, the access modevalues O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, and O_RDWRdo not specify individual bits. Rather, they define the low order two bits of flags, and are defined respectively as 0, 1, and 2. In other words, the combination O_RDONLY | O_WRONLYis a logical error, and certainly does not have the same meaning as O_RDWR.
Linux reserves the special, nonstandard access mode 3 (binary 11) in flagsto mean: check for read and write permission on the file and return a file descriptor that can't be used for reading or writing. This nonstandard access mode is used by some Linux drivers to return a file descriptor that is to be used only for device-specific ioctl(2) operations.
Rationale for openat() and other directory file descriptor APIsopenat() and the other system calls and library functions that take a directory file descriptor argument (i.e., execveat(2), faccessat(2), fanotify_mark(2), fchmodat(2), fchownat(2), fstatat(2), futimesat(2), linkat(2), mkdirat(2), mknodat(2), name_to_handle_at(2), readlinkat(2), renameat(2), statx(2), symlinkat(2), unlinkat(2), utimensat(2), mkfifoat(3), and scandirat(3)) address two problems with the older interfaces that preceded them. Here, the explanation is in terms of the openat() call, but the rationale is analogous for the other interfaces.
First, openat() allows an application to avoid race conditions that could occur when using open() to open files in directories other than the current working directory. These race conditions result from the fact that some component of the directory prefix given to open() could be changed in parallel with the call to open(). Suppose, for example, that we wish to create the file path/to/xxx.depif the file path/to/xxxexists. The problem is that between the existence check and the file creation step, pathor to(which might be symbolic links) could be modified to point to a different location. Such races can be avoided by opening a file descriptor for the target directory, and then specifying that file descriptor as the dirfdargument of (say) fstatat(2) and openat(). The use of the dirfdfile descriptor also has other benefits:
- the file descriptor is a stable reference to the directory, even if the directory is renamed; and
- the open file descriptor prevents the underlying filesystem from being dismounted, just as when a process has a current working directory on a filesystem.
Second, openat() allows the implementation of a per-thread "current working directory", via file descriptor(s) maintained by the application. (This functionality can also be obtained by tricks based on the use of /proc/self/fd/dirfd, but less efficiently.)
The O_DIRECTflag may impose alignment restrictions on the length and address of user-space buffers and the file offset of I/Os. In Linux alignment restrictions vary by filesystem and kernel version and might be absent entirely. However there is currently no filesystem-independent interface for an application to discover these restrictions for a given file or filesystem. Some filesystems provide their own interfaces for doing so, for example the XFS_IOC_DIOINFOoperation in xfsctl(3).
Under Linux 2.4, transfer sizes, and the alignment of the user buffer and the file offset must all be multiples of the logical block size of the filesystem. Since Linux 2.6.0, alignment to the logical block size of the underlying storage (typically 512 bytes) suffices. The logical block size can be determined using the ioctl(2) BLKSSZGEToperation or from the shell using the command:
O_DIRECTI/Os should never be run concurrently with the fork(2) system call, if the memory buffer is a private mapping (i.e., any mapping created with the mmap(2) MAP_PRIVATEflag; this includes memory allocated on the heap and statically allocated buffers). Any such I/Os, whether submitted via an asynchronous I/O interface or from another thread in the process, should be completed before fork(2) is called. Failure to do so can result in data corruption and undefined behavior in parent and child processes. This restriction does not apply when the memory buffer for the O_DIRECTI/Os was created using shmat(2) or mmap(2) with the MAP_SHAREDflag. Nor does this restriction apply when the memory buffer has been advised as MADV_DONTFORKwith madvise(2), ensuring that it will not be available to the child after fork(2).
The O_DIRECTflag was introduced in SGI IRIX, where it has alignment restrictions similar to those of Linux 2.4. IRIX has also a fcntl(2) call to query appropriate alignments, and sizes. FreeBSD 4.x introduced a flag of the same name, but without alignment restrictions.
O_DIRECTsupport was added under Linux in kernel version 2.4.10. Older Linux kernels simply ignore this flag. Some filesystems may not implement the flag and open() will fail with EINVALif it is used.
Applications should avoid mixing O_DIRECTand normal I/O to the same file, and especially to overlapping byte regions in the same file. Even when the filesystem correctly handles the coherency issues in this situation, overall I/O throughput is likely to be slower than using either mode alone. Likewise, applications should avoid mixing mmap(2) of files with direct I/O to the same files.
The behavior of O_DIRECTwith NFS will differ from local filesystems. Older kernels, or kernels configured in certain ways, may not support this combination. The NFS protocol does not support passing the flag to the server, so O_DIRECTI/O will bypass the page cache only on the client; the server may still cache the I/O. The client asks the server to make the I/O synchronous to preserve the synchronous semantics of O_DIRECT. Some servers will perform poorly under these circumstances, especially if the I/O size is small. Some servers may also be configured to lie to clients about the I/O having reached stable storage; this will avoid the performance penalty at some risk to data integrity in the event of server power failure. The Linux NFS client places no alignment restrictions on O_DIRECTI/O.
In summary, O_DIRECTis a potentially powerful tool that should be used with caution. It is recommended that applications treat use of O_DIRECTas a performance option which is disabled by default.
- "The thing that has always disturbed me about O_DIRECT is that the whole interface is just stupid, and was probably designed by a deranged monkey on some serious mind-controlling substances."---Linus
BUGSCurrently, it is not possible to enable signal-driven I/O by specifying O_ASYNCwhen calling open(); use fcntl(2) to enable this flag.
One must check for two different error codes, EISDIRand ENOENT, when trying to determine whether the kernel supports O_TMPFILEfunctionality.
SEE ALSOchmod(2), chown(2), close(2), dup(2), fcntl(2), link(2), lseek(2), mknod(2), mmap(2), mount(2), open_by_handle_at(2), read(2), socket(2), stat(2), umask(2), unlink(2), write(2), fopen(3), acl(5), fifo(7), inode(7), path_resolution(7), symlink(7)
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- SEE ALSO
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