Manpage of TOUPPER
TOUPPERSection: Linux Programmer's Manual (3)
NAMEtoupper, tolower, toupper_l, tolower_l - convert uppercase or lowercase
#include <ctype.h>int toupper(int c);int tolower(int c);int toupper_l(int c, locale_t locale);int tolower_l(int c, locale_t locale);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
- Since glibc 2.10:
- _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700
- Before glibc 2.10:
DESCRIPTIONThese functions convert lowercase letters to uppercase, and vice versa.
If cis a lowercase letter, toupper() returns its uppercase equivalent, if an uppercase representation exists in the current locale. Otherwise, it returns c. The toupper_l() function performs the same task, but uses the locale referred to by the locale handle locale.
If cis an uppercase letter, tolower() returns its lowercase equivalent, if a lowercase representation exists in the current locale. Otherwise, it returns c. The tolower_l() function performs the same task, but uses the locale referred to by the locale handle locale.
If cis neither an unsigned charvalue nor EOF, the behavior of these functions is undefined.
The behavior of toupper_l() and tolower_l() is undefined if localeis the special locale object LC_GLOBAL_LOCALE(see duplocale(3)) or is not a valid locale object handle.
RETURN VALUEThe value returned is that of the converted letter, or cif the conversion was not possible.
ATTRIBUTESFor an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).
CONFORMING TOtoupper(), tolower(): C89, C99, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.
NOTESThe standards require that the argument cfor these functions is either EOFor a value that is representable in the type unsigned char. If the argument cis of type char, it must be cast to unsigned char, as in the following example:
char c; ... res = toupper((unsigned char) c);
This is necessary because charmay be the equivalent signed char, in which case a byte where the top bit is set would be sign extended when converting to int, yielding a value that is outside the range of unsigned char.
The details of what constitutes an uppercase or lowercase letter depend on the locale. For example, the default Clocale does not know about umlauts, so no conversion is done for them.
SEE ALSOisalpha(3), newlocale(3), setlocale(3), towlower(3), towupper(3), uselocale(3), locale(7)
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