That is hard to say.
That is hard to say.
It is likely for malware to infect your system. No OS is bullet proof. Does not matter what system you use. Linux can get compromised but compromising a Linux system is more difficult. Linux is a shape shifter. It comes in many forms, has is own ecosystem of software and system operations.
Please do not think you are untouchable. If something is well known, highly used, it will create a large audience. Crackers go after systems of profit value and bragging rights. Be very diligent with what you let run on your system.
Have a look at this site for a general understanding of the security benefits in Linux.
Think of root as administrator on windows. You have the right to do anything on your system. Crackers and viruses love this because a user's account is not limited on what they can do on their system. They don't need permission to change things. That is why you never login as root. Your entire system is open to compromise. Does this make sense?
Hugenoot, if you know of a good backup program to use, and it is related to the topic of the thread, just post a link to it.
anderhm said:thanks for replying. i'm sorry but I wasn't clear enough. I did everything again and now I have a similar problem. I installed ubuntu and rebooted the laptop when I was asked. And it did reboot without a problem (just like last time). After that the installation icon was gone and I started using it, but on the next day when I started the laptop it says "ntldr is missing press ctrl+alt+del". What happened? What did I do wrong?
"ntldr" is the bootloader used to boot a windows operating system. Ubuntu and most Linux distributions is Grub2 as the bootloader. It appears, based on the error message, you have windows installed on your laptop. From experience, when I installed ubuntu(ubuntu-based OS) to my system, as a "clean" install, the installation erases everything on my hard drive. This includes, files, and previous operating systems. The installation overwrites any bootloaders in the MBR(master boot record) with its own bootloader, Grub2 for instance. Provided everything went well, my system boots right into linux.
The fact that you are getting the "ntldr" error would suggest that you do have windows on your laptop but you overwritten the "ntldr" with ubuntu's grub bootloader.
Without "ntldr" or any others of the windows boot files, windows will not load. Grub has detected a windows partition but can't load it.
"ntldr" is used to boot windows operating systems up to an including XP and windows server 2003. I can infer that you have windows XP on your laptop.
First thing I need you to do is to check if you still have a Windows installation on your laptop, is so, what version.
Then decide if you want to keep it or completely remove it. Based on your answer, we can direct you in the right areas.
Hope to hear from you soon.
It was my pleasure. You are right though. Grub is normally installed in the MBR. However, it can be installed within a partition. I started doing this when I developed a habit of installing multiple linux systems on my computers. If I got tired of one I removed it. I ran into a problem of my system not booting because the bootloader of the OS that I removed was removed from the MBR as well. So, I started installing Grub in partitions. Yet, normally, you would put grub in the MBR.
You learn quick and the above commands you posted were the commands I have forgotten to add. Good job on your research. I will be looking forward for that beer ;-))
It sounds like you overwritten the grub boot loader. All you have to do it reinstall it. If you did not install windows 8.1 under UEFI then the fix should be a simple reinstallation of the grub bootloader. If you have your mint 16 install disk, insert it, boot from it, change root into the partition that has mint 16 installed:
#sudo chroot <path of mint 16 partition>
Then install grub.
Grub will be installed to the current partition. Once installation has completed, update the grub bootloader.
Then reboot your system and you should both mint and windows 8.1 listed in the grub boot menu.
These instructions should help you in more details.
I'll be there with you guys. Discussions and debates like this is how we learn.
And there you have it. Any questions?
Try not to use words like "daft, dumb and plain stupid" as these words can have an offensive effect on the readers. "Careless" is less offensive yet stern for importance.
Firefox is also a good secure browser to use. Not as fast of chrome but still solid.
Thanks for your expertise Hugenoot. This bit of information is a step in the right direction to helping end-users better understand personal computer security. I have learned a few things my self ;-)