In the previous article, I looked at some pre-greeting tests that Postfix performs to help identify spam; now I’ll move on through the chain and explore the available post-salutation tests. Remember that limiting how many machines make it to this stage is of significant value to a mail server’s resource capacity. Here, our trusty Postfix performs a series of “deep protocol” tests that are disabled by default for a variety of reasons. One such reason is that these tests are more brutal than those you might be used to seeing with RBLs. Equally, they also come with some limitations which should first be understood.
One key limitation is that a sender machine has to connect to your mail server all over again after passing the “deep protocol” tests before it can send its email. Expiration times can be upped to allow the machine to return again much later, but obviously this isn’t ideal. Bear in mind, however, the popularity of “greylisting,” which defers email deliveries to detect if a sender is in a frenzied rush and willing to return again in a few minutes or not. The deferral after the “deep protocol tests” is far from alien to mail servers and works along these lines. Remember that once an IP address has been whitelisted, when the sender machine returns, they will be let straight through to an SMTP process. This unfettered access will be allowed for a relatively lengthy period of time (we’ll look at that shortly), so this deferral only affects the initial connection.
Another limitation is the lack of compatibility, which sadly means that for the time being you should disable “deep protocol” tests if you need it available on TCP port 25, using the AUTH, XCLIENT, and XFORWARD commands. Additionally, you should not enable RBLs that don’t play nicely with servers running on either dial-up or residential networks and reject those IP address ranges.
Let’s look at three post-greeting tests now, starting with the “pipelining” test.
If you’re familiar with networking, you will know that half duplex means traffic flowing in one direction, and full duplex means simultaneous traffic flowing in both directions. Clearly, the difference in bandwidth between the two is significant. That difference is compounded if you factor in the delays for response/receive times along with the data throughput.
The term “pipelining” also relates to concurrency of sorts. A well-used example is where a manufacturing plant’s assembly line allows greater efficiency thanks to the output of certain processes being the input of another process, which might be next in the line on the conveyor belt. Apparently, even if there are some dependencies — and therefore delays — time-savings can usually be achieved.
One of the challenges that Postfix faces is that SMTP is a half-duplex protocol by design. Although Postfix itself advertises support for pipelining (where senders don’t have to necessarily wait for a response before continuing with a conversation), the excellent Postscreen does not. Among the SMTP commands included for this functionality are RSET, MAIL, RCPT, or an encoded message. This was introduced by RFC 1854 in 1995 and then refreshed RFC 2197 in 1997. Although it’s an old design, what’s clever about adding this capability to mail servers is the addition of allowing the server to defer responses as long as the sender is still submitting new requests. According to the documentation provided by the bulletproof qmail server, this explanation applies:
“The server must never wait for client input unless it has first “flushed” all pending responses; and it must send responses in the correct order. It is the client’s responsibility to avoid deadlock.”
Despite the benefits it brings, as I said, pipelining is disabled by default for Postscreen; thus, senders are not allowed to send multiple commands. However, if you switch on the option postscreen_pipelining_enable, then Postscreen will vigilantly stay alert checking for any zombie machines that send multiple commands.
This option can add another test and also improve your logging by including the fact that pipelining was attempted. The manual shows the logging syntax that would be written to your log files as so:
COMMAND PIPELINING from [address]:port after command: text
Such a log entry would tell us that the sender machine sent many, and not just one, commands without waiting for the MTA to respond.
Some nefarious spambots will attack your mail server via an open proxy. A telltale sign of a proxy being used is that non-SMTP commands bleed into the conversation between the mail server and the sender, such as the CONNECT command. We can explicitly log and reject these invalid commands using the postscreen_forbidden_commands option. Apparently, this function will additionally look out for commands that look like a message’s header, sent in the wrong part of the conversation. This error condition can be common if the sending machine keeps on transmitting data having ignored Postscreen’s rejections. The Postfix docs offer this as the logging syntax, which you would expect to discover in your logs after such an event has occurred:
NON-SMTP COMMAND from [address]:port after command: text
You Say LF, I Say CR
Another post-SMTP-greeting test is referred to as the “bare newline” test. The structure of SMTP commands are certainly simple, and usually very short; however, they must be adhered to in order to make sense. A long-standing pain for sys admins involved the differences between carriage returns and line feeds, known as <CR> and <LF>, respectively in SMTP. These otherwise invisible characters (which are supposed to seen by software but not by humans) have caused great consternation in the past, thanks to different support from varying operating systems. For example, Unix-type machines generally use line feeds, Macs use carriage returns, and just to keep everyone on their toes Windows uses <CR><LF>, with the carriage return always being used first.
For one reason or another the SMTP protocol terminates its new lines with <CR><LF>, Windows style, and if a spambot deviates from adhering to such rules, then it fails this test. This needs to be enabled from its default in order to use it. Here’s how such an occurrence appears in Postfix’s logs:
BARE NEWLINE from [address]:port after command
If you want to catch sender machines that aren’t playing nicely, then you simply add this line to your config file that enables it:
postscreen_bare_newline_enable = yes
Failure to Comply
Let’s look at what happens when a sender machine fails the post-greeting tests. Similar to pre-greeting tests, we can see a familiar set of actions in Table 1.
Ignoring the failure of this particular test is the default for the post-greeting “bare newline” test.
By default, pipelining enforces its actions if a sender machine fails this test. It will then reject connections with a 550 SMTP response. This test is run all over again if the machine returns later on.
If the mighty Postfix picks up any non-SMTP commands, then a 521 SMTP error is promptly sent to the connecting machine. This test is repeated upon each connection. You can adjust settings away from the defaults (CONNECT, GET, and POST) by altering the smtpd_forbidden_commands option.
Table 1: What actions Postfix undertakes if post-greeting failures occur.
Other SMTP Scenarios
Clearly, a number of other errors are generated by MTAs, which occur due to varying scenarios. Table 2 shows the log entries that you might expect to see when these errors are generated from differing scenarios.
HANGUP after time from [address]:port in test name
This will show up in your logs if the connecting machine dropped its connection for some reason. You can tell how many seconds after inception it occurred with “time.” You might be surprised to hear that no penalties apply if a machine is caught out hanging up. Postfix continues to allow that machine to progress with other tests afterwards.
COMMAND TIME LIMIT from [address]:port after command
You can specify how long a connection should be allowed to run by using the postscreen_command_time_limit option before dropping it.
COMMAND COUNT LIMIT from [address]:port after command
With this option, you can avoid a barrage of SMTP commands and specify how many are allowed within a particular session:
COMMAND LENGTH LIMIT from [address]:port after command
Set a strict per-command length limit as specified using the line_length_limit option.
NOQUEUE: reject: CONNECT from [address]:port: too many connections
If an SMTP client requests too many resources from our server in too short a period of time, then we can reject the connection using a SMTP 421 error. This error relates to too many messages or connections (concurrency).
NOQUEUE: reject: CONNECT from [address]:port: all server ports busy
This is very similar to the above error, also dealing with concurrency issues.
Table 2: Other Postfix SMTP errors and how they are logged to our log files.
What Success Looks Like
Rather than perpetually focusing on the negative, let’s see what logs look like when an inbound email passes all of the tests you throw at it. This doesn’t include machines specifically whitelisted but rather machines that have passed your SMTP tests before proving successful.
PASS NEW [address]:port
When such a happy event occurs, our trusting MTA then writes an entry inside its temporary whitelist and our mail server remains accessible to the IP address according to the “time to live” (TTL) options that I’ll look at now. Some relate to the actions I just examined, as you will see.
The postscreen_bare_newline_ttl usually defaults to 30 days, and Postscreen will remember the results of such a test for that period. This can be adjusted to your preference with relative impunity.
One of the key concepts behind RBLs is that the information they contain is current and therefore useful. You may trust some more than others for validity, however. You can change the default setting — one hour — to some other time measurement, such as a number of seconds, minutes, days, or weeks with postscreen_dnsbl_max_ttl and postscreen_dnsbl_ttl. In case it causes confusion, the latter option was only available in versions 2.8 to 3.0 and is replaced by the former in version 3.1.
There may also be circumstances when a response from an RBL offers a very high or low TTL. We can affect the minimum TTL with postscreen_dnsbl_min_ttl, which usually defaults to 60 seconds to keep the number of requests down. Note that if there’s sizeable TTL sent back, then this will override the postscreen_dnsbl_max_ttl option, which I just covered..
To keep our Postfix server’s load down, we can cache the results of successfully passing our pre-greeting tests. Usually that is set to a day and can be changed with the postscreen_greet_ttl. Such a change could be very useful, especially if there aren’t many offenders changing their behavior too frequently.
If you wanted to change the length of time that we remember if machines aren’t found to be bombarding our mail server with non-SMTP commands, then you can alter this option, postscreen_non_smtp_command_ttl, which is usually 30 days by default. If you infrequently see this error then it prevents unnecessary lookups if you increase this value.
Finally, if you’re not expecting your initial findings to change, in respect of your pipelining tests, then you can increase the 30 days by default with postscreen_pipelining_ttl. Potentially, this can also lessen unnecessary lookups.
Danger, Will Robinson
The docs make an important point about the use of Postscreen. This point relates to mail clients, and by that I mean software such as Thunderbird or Evolution, which are also known as MUAs (Mail User Agents). They allow you to pick up inbound emails and send outbound emails. With the use of Postscreen, however you need to avoid using TCP port 25, because you will definitely encounter issues. Essentially that SMTP port is for inbound email only when Postscreen is running.
The outside world uses your MX (mail exchanger) records, declared in your DNS, to find your mail server in the first place and they then start their conversation with TCP port 25. For outbound email, however, your user’s email client should instead use the Submission Service (which listens on TCP port 587) to first authenticate — usually — and then send emails through. You may also have seen TCP port 465 in use (known as the SMTPS port to allow secure, SSL-based SMTP transactions), which was used more in the past. TCP port 587 is known as SMTP-MSA to specifically allow end users to send outbound email. There are a number of creative workarounds to this scenario; however, setting up your daemon ports differently is for another day’s discussion.
We covered a good deal of ground while looking at the venerable Postscreen. Its raison d’etre is to reduce volumes of spam at every level of the SMTP transaction and dutifully remember senders that have successfully passed its tricky tests en route so that it can forward their emails more quickly next time.
Effective, efficient, and robust — there’s little doubt that even for small volumes of email I would tune Postscreen to suit my user’s email needs. Although I couldn’t fully cover this massive subject area here, I hope now that you are equipped with a practical overview of Postscreen, so you can also take advantage of its many features and choose ham over spam.
Chris Binnie is a Technical Consultant with 20 years of Linux experience and a writer for Linux Magazine and Admin Magazine. His new book Linux Server Security: Hack and Defend teaches you how to launch sophisticated attacks, make your servers invisible and crack complex passwords.