January 12, 2010

10 Useful Linux Commands

Here's a list of 10 commands that may come handy when using the command line in Linux.

Search for all files modified in the last N days containing a specific text in their name

find DIR -mtime -N -name "*TEXT*"

For example:

find ~ -mtime -5 -name "*log*"

will display all the files modified in the past five days that include the text 'log' in their filename.

Determine which processes use the most memory

ps aux | sort -nk 4 | tail

will show the first 10 processes that use the most memory, using ascendant sorting. Alternately:

ps aux | sort -nrk 4 | head

Output of ps aux | sort -nrk 4 | headwill show the first 10 processes using most memory, using descendent sorting (see Figure 1). 

Display the username which is currently logged in


Show date using format modifiers

date +"%H:%M:%S"

Showing date in format month, day, yearwill output time in format HOUR:MINUTE:SECOND. You can use any format specifiers explained in the man page. The double quotes are required in case you need to use spaces (see Figure 2). 

Output of finger $USERShow info about a specific user

finger $USER

Show disk usage separately for each partition

df -h

The -h switch will tell df to show human-readable sizes (KB, MB, and GB when it is the case)

df -B 1K

will show sizes in kilobytes.

Show which modules are loaded


Add or remove a module to/from the Linux kernel

modprobe MODULE
modprobe -r MODULE

Search for a file using locate


will search the locate database (created with updatedb) for any path or file which contains FILENAME.

Change the encoding of a text file


For example:

iconv -f ISO-8859-16 -t UTF-8 myfile.txt

will change the encoding of myfile.txt from ISO-8859-16 (Romanian) to UTF-8.

This article originally appeared on TuxArena.

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