wireless users using a variety of devices is also rapidly becoming much more complex. To accommodate these challenges and to face a future where there
are no barriers to access using a handheld device, engineers are investigating what measures are needed to create a "universal communicator," a device
that is capable of communicating regardless of the connection options available to the user.
There are several options for personal wireless communication currently available through service providers. The majority of users connect via
cellular connections: either using the GSM family of networks (GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS), or the CDMA family of cellular networks (CDMA, CDMA 2000,
1xRTT, EV-DO, EV-DV). However, with the advent of wireless standards for WLAN and WMAN, deployment of these networks is steadily increasing in
enterprises, public "hotspots" and even within homes. Although widespread deployment is still a few years away, these networking options are open to