Typically, when you buy a network router or switch, it comes bundled with some version of the manufacturer's operating system. Cisco routers come with IOS (or some derivative), Juniper routers come with Junos, and so on. But with the recent proliferation of merchant silicon, there seem to be fewer and fewer differences between competing devices under the hood. For instance, the Juniper QFX3500, the Cisco Nexus 3064, and the Arista 7050S are all powered by an off-the-shelf Broadcom chipset rather than custom ASICs developed in-house. Among such similar hardware platforms, the remaining differentiator is the software.
One company looking to benefit from this trend is Cumulus Networks. Cumulus does not produce or sell hardware, only a network operating system: Cumulus Linux. The Debian-based OS is built to run on whitebox hardware you can purchase from a number of partner Original Device Manufacturers (ODMs). (Their hardware compatability list includes a number of 10GE and 40GE switch models from different vendors.)
Read more at PacketLife.