Linux manages hardware peripherals using kernel modules. Here’s how that works.
A running Linux kernel is one of those things you don’t want to upset. After all, the kernel is the software that drives everything your computer does. Considering how many details have to be simultaneously managed on a live system, it’s better to leave the kernel to do its job with as few distractions as possible. But if it’s impossible to make even small changes to the compute environment without rebooting the whole system, then plugging in a new webcam or printer could cause a painful disruption to your workflow. Having to reboot each time you add a device to get the system to recognize it is hardly efficient.
To create an effective balance between the opposing virtues of stability and usability, Linux isolates the kernel, but lets you add specific functionality on the fly through loadable kernel modules (LKMs). As shown in the figure below, you can think of a module as a piece of software that tells the kernel where to find a device and what to do with it. In turn, the kernel makes the device available to users and processes and oversees its operation.
Read more at OpenSource.com