A network topology is how computers, printers and other devices are connected, and describes the layout of wires, devices and routing paths on a network. When referring to topology through the lens of IoT, it is how sensors, actuators and gateways communicate with one another. There are a number of common topologies, point to point, bus, ring, star and mesh., some of which are better suited for the internet of things than others:
A point-to-point network establishes a direct connection between two network nodes, according to O’Reilly’s Radar. Communication can take place only between these two nodes, or devices. An example of this type of network is a Bluetooth link between a cell phone and an ear piece. The advantages of point-to-point networking are its simplicity and low cost. The primary limitations spring from the one-to-one relationship that exists between two devices; the network cannot scale beyond these two nodes, therefore it is not a widely used topology for industrial IoT.