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Taming the tar command: Tips for managing backups in Linux

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How Open Source Is Transforming The Energy Industry

In this interview Swapnil Bhartiya, creator of TFiR, sat down with Shuli Goodman, Executive Director of LF Energy to discuss the role open source and the foundation is playing in helping the energy sector to embark on its own digital transformation and cloud-native journey.

Here is a lightly edited transcript of the interview:

Swapnil Bhartiya: Shuli, first of all, welcome to the show once again. When we look at the energy sector – we see power lines and grids. It creates the image of an ancient system to move electrons and protons from one place to another. Are we still talking about the same power lines and grids or we’re also talking about a modern infrastructure?

Shuli Goodman: Well, we’re definitely talking about modern infrastructure. One of the defining features of the grid that we’re moving from is you have centralized energy generation that is being pushed out over high voltage to distribution systems. We lose nearly 60% of the electrons. There’s a tremendous opportunity for optimization and being able to reduce the amount of electron loss.

The digitalization of energy, in terms of the metadata and the data, enables system operators to be able to work much more effectively. It’s going to be critical in ensuring that we actually are able to balance supply and demand in a different way than we’ve been balancing supply and demand for the last 150 years.

Swapnil Bhartiya: What role is LF Energy playing in helping address these problems?
Shuli Goodman: We’re at the beginning of a period of accelerated innovation, which will be addressing these issues. The Digital Substation project, for example, is addressing the ability to have torrents of data being managed from the edge, and to be able to provide grid intelligence out at the edge, and have a mechanism for being able to bring that in and then to be able to orchestrate, choreograph, and to even have control or shared control mechanisms that enable us to manage the grid.

What we’re working on now is blocking and tackling at a very fundamental level. You have utilities who have always thought of themselves as hardware guys – dealing with power lines. It’s been a very manual, highly intensive industry.

We are moving towards network operators, almost carriers like approach. Kind of an amalgamation of electricity, telecommunications and the internet. This whole new process of being able to orchestrate energy and digitalization is essential in that paradigm. It could even be up to 50% of that. And then there’s other stuff that’s happening both at the chip-level and at the hardware-level that is going to enable that intelligence at the edge and the ability to choreograph that through market signals.

What we’re doing is shifting to a price-based grid coordination model. In other words, that price signals that will shift and change based on the amount of sun, or the amount of wind, or the availability of energy. We’ll actually begin getting pushed out to the edge and enable coordination between assets at the edge.

Swapnil Bhartiya: You mentioned the Digital Substation Project. Tell us more about it.

Shuli Goodman: So, for those of you who are watching, who’ve been along the journey with LF Networking or have seen what’s happened with 5G, the revolution of 5G was the virtualization and the dis-aggregation. The shift from purely hardware-centric to really moving to 75% virtualization.

The Digital Substation, the DSAS project, is an umbrella of four different projects that are addressing the digitalization at the substation. The Substation is the critical infrastructure that separates high, medium, and low voltage between the generation and then moving it, stepping it down before it goes out into your house. I refer to them as edge node routers, which may or may not be exactly the right term, but we’re moving into a territory where we’re inventing things.

I think of the edge node and the DSAS project is really about virtualizing hardware, abstracting the complexity of hardware and software so that we begin to have really software-defined environments. And perhaps in the future, we’ll have increasingly software-defined substations, transformers. All kinds of things that we considered to be de facto the standard today, may in fact move more and more towards software-defined. And the DSAS project is really the start of that.

Swapnil Bhartiya: What kind of collaboration is there around DSAS?

Shuli Goodman: It’s a great project. It really started with RTE. Last summer we had a series of meetings and we opened it up to all of the OEMs, vendors, suppliers, such as, GE, ABB, Schneider Electric and all the network operators, utilities all over the world that wanted to participate.

We have a core group, from RTE, France, and then we have Alliander and TenneT, which are the distribution and the transmission system operators in the Netherlands. TenneT also operates in Germany. We have General Electric, which is driving it from a vendor, OEM perspective. And then Schneider Electric is also participating, and we hope that others will join us.

Swapnil Bhartiya: You also have something called CoMPAS or Configuration Modules for Power Industry Automation System. What is that?

Shuli Goodman: So, CoMPAS is the first of the four projects in the DSAS umbrella. It’s essentially a configuration model. One of the problems that end-users – the utilities – have is that when they think about their portfolio of hardware and software there are tremendous interoperability challenges. 61850, which is an IEC Standard, was created precisely in order to facilitate interoperability. The CoMPAS project is leveraging 61850 to enable interoperability between various different vendors so that we can have a more heterogeneous environment for things like a substation. There are millions of substations on the planet so any single player managing at the transmission level could be managing thousands of these. And if you are at the distribution level, you would be managing many thousands of thousands.

So if you don’t have that interoperability, then you have vendor lock-in. And if you have vendor lock-in, it’s not just that it’s bad for the utility, it’s also really bad for the OEM, because it slows innovation. It keeps the vendor and the supplier sort of focused on a portfolio as opposed to really looking ahead. Right now, solving this interoperability problem is ground zero, and that’s where CoMPAS comes in.

Swapnil Bhartiya: How has Open Source made your life easier to not only convince these stakeholders, these players, to collaborate with each other but also to innovate at a much faster rate than it would take traditional companies to do in a proprietary manner?

Shuli Goodman: So, if just for a moment, you just imagined in your mind, a pie, and each of the wedges in the pie represented parts of the stack that you need to build and support in order to go to market. What Open Source does is it allows us to identify what are the commodity parts of that pie, and can we agree on working on those together. That then frees up engineers and resources and facilitates interoperability. It does really great things to accelerate innovation because instead of, let’s say, Siemens, GE, ABB or Schneider Electric, putting in 30% of their resources to supporting the 61850 integration, or something like that, they can put in a quarter of those engineers and then relocate those resources somewhere else. The same thing is true with the utilities, because, for the most part, utilities have given responsibility for their network operations at a digital level.

Vendors need to become Digital Native and Cloud Native, because to get to where we need to go, it is going to be so digitally intensive, perhaps 50% of the problem is going to be digital. So, we need to really build that capacity.

My first real experience with Open Source

Arthur Silva Sens wrote the following on Medium:

I just graduated from my internship at Linux Foundation’s Community Bridge program, and I’d like to share my experience and explain why you should also consider applying if you are new to open source or the cloud-native world.

I already had some experience with cloud-native projects, I’ve been using cloud-native tools at my workplace for a couple of years. It is thanks to them that I got my first full-time job as an Infrastructure Analyst and later on as a Cloud Architect. And if you are reading this blog post, I assume that you have at least some knowledge about what CNCF does and you do know some of its projects, like Kubernetes and Prometheus, i.e.

click to read more about Arthur’s experience the Linux Foundation’s community tools:

A beginner’s guide to firewalld in Linux

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Rootless containers using Podman

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Linux hardware: The history of memory and storage devices

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Why Linux’s biggest ever kernel release is really no big deal

When the Linux 5.8 Release Candidate opened for testing recently, the big news wasn’t so much what was in it, but its size. As Linus Torvalds himself noted, “despite not really having any single thing that stands out … 5.8 looks to be one of our biggest releases of all time.”

True enough, RC 5.8 features over 14,000 non-merge commits, some 800,000 new lines of code, and added around a hundred new contributors. It might have gotten that large simply because few have been traveling thanks to COVID-19, and we’ve all been able to get more work done in a release window than usual. But from the perspective of this seasoned Linux kernel contributor and maintainer, what is particularly striking about the 5.8 RC release is that its unprecedented size just was not an issue for those that are maintaining it. That, I’d argue, is because Linux has the best workflow process of any software project in the world.

What does it mean to have the best workflow process? For me, it comes down to a set of basic rules that Linux kernel developers have established over time to allow them to produce relentlessly steady and reliable progress on a massive scale.

One key factor is git

It’s worth starting with a little Linux history. In the project’s early days (1991–2002), people simply sent patches directly to Linus. Then he began pulling in patches from sub-maintainers, and those people would be taking patches from others. It quickly became apparent that this couldn’t scale. Everything was too hard to keep track of, and the project was at constant risk of merging incompatible code.

That led Linus to explore various change management systems including BitKeeper, which took an unusually decentralized approach. Whereas other change management systems used a check-out/modify/check-in protocol, BitKeeper gave everyone a copy of the whole repo and allowed developers to send their changes up to be merged. Linux briefly adopted BitKeeper in 2002, but its status as a proprietary solution proved incompatible with the community’s belief in open source development, and the relationship ended in 2005. In response, Linus disappeared for a while and came back with git, which took decentralized change management in a powerful new direction and was the first significant instantiation of the management process that makes Linux development work so well today.

Here are seven best practices — or fundamental tenets — that are key to the Linux kernel workflow:

Each commit must do only one thing

A central tenet of Linux is that all changes must be broken up into small steps. Every commit that you submit should do only one thing. That doesn’t mean every commit has to be small in size. A simple change to the API of a function that is used in a thousand files can make the change massive but is still acceptable as it is all part of performing one task. By always obeying this single injunction, you make it much easier to identify and isolate any change that turns out to be problematic. It also makes it easier for the patch reviewer only to need to worry about a single task that the patch accomplishes. 

Commits cannot break the build

Not only should all changes be broken into the smallest possible increments, but they also can’t break the kernel. Every step needs to be fully functional and not cause regressions. This is why a change to a function’s prototype must also update every file that calls it, to prevent the build from breaking. So every step has to work as a standalone change, which brings us to the next point:

All code is bisectable

If a bug is discovered at some point, you need to know which change caused the problem. Essentially, a bisect is an operation that allows you to find the exact point in time where everything went wrong.

You do that by going to the middle of where the last known working commit exists, and the first commit known to be broken, and test the code at that point. If it works, you go forward to the next middle point. If it doesn’t, you go back to the middle point in the other direction. In that way, you can find the commit that breaks the code from tens of thousands of possible commits in just a dozen or so compiles/tests. Git even helps in automating this process with the git bisect functionality. 

Importantly, this only works well if you abide by the previous rules: that each commit does just one thing. Otherwise, you would not know which of the many changes in the problem commit caused the issue. If a commit breaks the build or does not boot, and the bisect lands on that commit, you will not know which direction of the bisect to take. This means that you should never write a commit that depends on a future commit, like calling a function that doesn’t exist yet, or changing the parameters of a global function without changing all its callers in that same commit.

Never rebase a public repository

The Linux workflow process won’t allow you to rebase any public branch used by others. Once you rebase, the commits that were rebased will no longer match the same commits in the repositories based on that tree. A public tree that is not a leaf in a hierarchy of trees must not rebase. Otherwise, it will break the trees lower in the hierarchy. When a git repository is based on another tree, it builds on top of a commit in that tree. A rebase replaces commits, possibly removing a commit that other trees are based on. 

Git gets merging right

Getting merging right is far from a given. Other change management systems are a nightmare to merge code from different branches. It often ends up with hard to figure out conflicts and takes a huge amount of manual work to resolve. Git was structured to do the job effortlessly, and Linux benefits directly as a result. It’s a huge part of why the size of the 5.8 release wasn’t really a big deal. The 5.8-rc1 release averaged 200 commits a day, with 880 total merges from 5.7. Some maintainers noticed a bit more of a workload, but nothing was too stressful or would cause burnout.

Keep well-defined commit logs

Unfortunately, this may be one of the most essential best practices that are skipped over by many other projects. Every commit needs to be a stand-alone, and that includes its commit log. Everything required to understand the change being made must be explained in the change’s commit log. I found that some of my most lengthy and descriptive changelogs were for single line commits. That’s because a single line change may be for a very subtle bug fix, and that bug fix should be thoroughly described in the changelog.

A couple of years after submitting a change, it is highly unlikely that anyone would know why that change was made. A git blame can show what commits changed the code of a file. Some of these commits may be very old. Perhaps you need to remove a lock, or make a change to some code and do not precisely know why it exists. A well-written changelog for that code change can help determine if that code can be removed or how it can be modified. There have been several times I was glad I wrote detailed changelogs on code as I had to remove code, and the changelog description let me know that my changes were fine to make. 

Run continuous testing and integration

Finally, an essential practice is running continuous testing and continuous integration. I test every one of my pull requests before I send them upstream. We also have a repro called linux-next that pulls in all the changes that maintainers have on a specific branch of their repositories and tests them to assure that they integrate correctly. Effectively, linux-next runs a testable branch of the entire kernel that is destined for the next release. This is a public repo so anyone can test it, which happens pretty often – people now even release bug reports on code that’s in linux-next. But the upshot is that code that’s been in linux-next for a couple of weeks is very likely to be good to go into mainline.

Best practices exemplified

All of these practices enable the Linux community to release incredibly reliable code on a regular 9-week schedule at such a massive scale (average of 10,000 commits per release, and over 14,000 for the last release).  

I’d point to one more factor that’s been key to our success: culture. There’s a culture of continuous improvement within the kernel community that led us to adopt these practices in the first place. But we also have a culture of trust. We have a clear pathway via which people can make contributions and demonstrate over time that they are both willing and able to move the project forward. That builds a web of trusted relationships that have been key to the project’s long term success.

At the kernel layer, we have no choice but to follow these practices. All other applications run on top of the kernel. Any performance problem or bug in the kernel becomes a performance problem or bug for the applications on top. All error paths must exit peacefully; otherwise, the entire system will be compromised. We care about every error because the stakes are so high, but this mindset will serve any software project well.

Applications can have the luxury of merely crashing due to a bug. It will annoy users, but the stakes are not as high. Quality software should not take bugs lightly. This is why the Linux development workflow is considered the golden standard to follow.

About the author: Steven Rostedt (@srostedt) is a Linux kernel contributor and an Open Source Engineer at VMware. You can learn more about Steven’s work at blogs.vmware.com/opensource or @VMWopensource on Twitter

Facebook’s Long History of Open Source Investments Deepens with Platinum-level Linux Foundation Membership

From its efforts to reshape computing through open source to its aggressive push to increase internet connectivity around the world, Facebook is a leader in open innovation. Perhaps more important today than ever, Facebook’s focus on democratizing access to technology enhances opportunity and scale for individuals and businesses alike. That’s why we’re so excited to announce the company is joining the Linux Foundation at the highest level.

Facebook’s sponsorship of open innovation through the Linux Foundation will help support the largest shared technology investment in history with an estimated $16B in development costs of the world’s 100+ leading open source projects and supports those project communities through governance, events and education. The company is also already the lead contributor of many Linux Foundation-hosted projects, such as Presto, GraphQL, Osquery and ONNX. It has been an active participant in Linux kernel development, employing key developers and maintainers across major kernel subsystems.

In addition to these efforts, Facebook has a long history of leveraging open source to unlock the potential of open innovation:

  • Through Facebook Connectivity and the open source Telecom Infra Project (TIP) Foundation, Facebook hopes to bring fast, reliable internet to those without it. Facebook’s Magma open source project allows telecom operators to easily deploy mobile networks in hard-to-reach areas — reducing the costs of building and maintaining telecom networks. Together, Facebook Connectivity and TIP have created hundreds of billions of dollars of value through open source collaboration.
  • Facebook created a unique dataset of over 100,000 videos and launched the Deepfake Detection Challenge in order to accelerate development of new ways to detect deepfake videos. This open, collaborative effort will help the industry and society at large meet the challenge presented by deepfake technology and help everyone better assess the legitimacy of content they see online.
  • Facebook’s Data for Good program enables geographic data to be shared with the aim of addressing some of the world’s greatest humanitarian issues, including COVID-19.
  • Facebook also leads the industry in open hardware, having founded the Open Compute Project (OCP), which uses open source to enable the creation of efficient, flexible, and scalable hardware designs for data centers.
  • By creating and sustaining an open source ecosystem around PyTorch, Facebook also accelerates the pace at which data scientists and developers can leverage the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning in computer vision, natural language processing, and other disciplines.
  • Facebook’s React.js library powers some of the world’s most popular websites and has become the standard for frontend web development due to its simplicity and flexibility.
  • In working with Github to sponsor the first-ever remote open source fellowship run by Major League Hacking, Facebook also hopes to create a trend of empowering a new generation of diverse open source contributors.

Facebook’s commitment to the open source community can be seen in both its multi-million dollar investments and its genuine passion for technology development. It is this combination that makes the company an incredible supporter of the open source developer community.

As a Platinum member of the Linux Foundation, Facebook’s Kathy Kam joins the LF board. Kathy is head of Open Source at Facebook where she manages the Open Source Engineering, Developer Advocacy, and Open Source Program Management teams. Kathy is a 20-year engineering, product management, and developer relations leader previously with Google and Microsoft.

The post Facebook’s Long History of Open Source Investments Deepens with Platinum-level Linux Foundation Membership appeared first on The Linux Foundation.